# A biography of ernst eduard kummer a german mathematician

Ernst Eduard Kummer 1810-1893. One of his major contributions is the introduction of ideal numbers which are defined as a special subgroup of a ring, extended the fundamental theorem of arithmetic to complex number fields also discovered the fourth order surface based on the singular surface of the quadratic line complex.

This Kummer surface has 16 isolated conical double points and 16 singular tangent planes. But fortunately for the good of mathematics Kummer received mathematics teaching as part of his degree to provide a proper foundation to the study of philosophy Soon the study of mathematics should become his main subject, although at this stage he still saw it as leading to a later study of philosophy. In 1831 Kummer was awarded a prize for a mathematical essay and in the same year he was awarded his certificate to enable him to teach in schools Moreover, on the strength of his prize winning essay he was awarded a doctorate.

### A biography of ernst eduard kummer a german mathematician

After a probationary year at the Gymnasium in Sorau where he had been educated, he was appointed to a teaching post at the Gymnasium in Liegnitz now Legnica in Poland that he held for the next 10 years. Some of his pupils there had great ability most prominent among them Leopold Kronecker and conversely they were extremely fortunate to find a school teacher of Kummer quality and ability to inspire.

During Kummer first period of mathematics he worked on function theory. He extended Gauss work on hypergeometric series giving developments that are useful in the theory of differential equations.

## Ernst Kummer

He was the first to compute the monodromy groups of these series. In 1839 although still a school teacher Kummer was elected to the Berlin Academy on Dirichlet recommendation. In 1855 he succeeded Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet as professor of mathematics at the University of Berlin at the same time also becoming a professor at the Berlin War College.

In number theory an ideal number is an algebraic integer which represents an ideal in the ring of integers of a number field. An ideal is a special subset of an algebraic ring. Ideals generalize certain subsets of the integers such as the a biography of ernst eduard kummer a german mathematician numbers or the multiples of 3.

Addition and subtraction of even numbers preserves evenness and multiplying an even number by any other integer results in another even number. The ideal numbers have made possible new developments in the arithmetic of algebraic numbers. In 1861 Germany first seminar in pure mathematics was established at Berlin on the recommendation of Kummer and Karl Weierstrass It soon attracted gifted young mathematicians form throughout the world, including many graduate students Kummer Berlin lectures, always carefully prepared, covered analytic geometry mechanics the theory of surfaces and number theory.

For the rest of his life Kummer was devoted to geometry. He applied himself with unbroken productivity to ray systems and also considered ballistic problems. By that time, also discovered the fourth order surface now named after him, based on the singular surface of the quadratic line complex.

The Kummer surface has 16 isolated conical double points and 16 singular tangent planes and was published in 1864.

- This plan succeeded; Weierstras was caaled to Berlin in 1856 as assistant professor. Kummer's geometric period was one when he devoted himself to the study of the ray systems that Hamilton had examined, but Kummer treated these problems algebraically.
- In 1831 he received a prize for his essay on the question posed by Scherk.
- The three great mathematicians of Berlin, Kummer, Weierstrass and Kronecker were close friends for twenty years as they worked closely and effectively together, However, around 1875 Weierstrass and Kronecker fell out.
- Addition and subtraction of even numbers preserves evenness and multiplying an even number by any other integer results in another even number.
- There he taught mathematics and physics and sometimes other topics. In 1855 he succeeded Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet as professor of mathematics at the University of Berlin at the same time also becoming a professor at the Berlin War College.

He retired at his own request in 1883 to spent the last years of his life in quiet retirement until his death in 1893. At yovisto you can learn more about number theory a lecture on Gauss' Law.