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A history of ingenious culture under the egyptian rule

They also wove linen and made pottery. Later they learned to use bronze. About 3, BC the Egyptians invented writing.

  1. Linguistic, cultural, and economic factors require a distinction between the small agricultural villages and the merchant- and landowner-dominated cities.
  2. But Bagnall focuses on several changes occurring over the course of the fourth century. Readers must generally use both phonograms and ideograms to determine the significance of a word or phrase.
  3. Chapters are devoted to. In he led a group of artists and architects to Egypt with the goal of drawing pictures of tombs, temples, and monuments and copying down as many hieroglyphic inscriptions as possible.

At that time Egypt was divided into northern lower Egypt and southern upper Egypt. About Menes managed to unite the two. He made Memphis his capital. Ancient Egypt was a highly organised society. The country was divided into 42 areas called nomes.

Each one was governed by nomarch. Farmers paid part of their crops in taxes.

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During it the pharaohs built pyramids. The first pyramid, the step pyramid was built by Zoser about BC. Others were built by the following pharaohs Sneferu and Khufu. However central authority in Egypt eventually weakened. After about BC Egypt split into parts and there were civil wars between the rival areas.


The Middle Kingdom lasted until BC. It was a great period of art and literature in Egypt. Furthermore the pharaohs carried out successful military campaigns and more pyramids were built. About a Palestinian people called the Hyksos seized power in northern Egypt.

They ruled from the city of Avaris. However native Egyptians continued to rule southern Egypt and in BC they drove out the Hyksos and reunited Egypt. So began the New Kingdom. It lasted from to BC. During this era Egypt was rich and powerful once again. Egypt controlled Nubia, the land to the south and invaded Palestine and Syria.

Meanwhile great new temples were built at Thebes and pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings. Then about BC Akhenaten became pharaoh. He worshiped only the sun god Aten.

However his son Tutankhamen worshiped the old gods. The New Kingdom collapsed in and gave way to another period of disunity. From this point Egypt declined and never recovered its former glory.

During the Third intermediate period Egypt split into two halves, north and south. Yet in BC the Persians conquered Egypt. Then in Alexander the Great conquered it. After Alexander's death his empire split into parts.

A Greek general called Ptolemy eventually took Egypt and for about years his Greek descendants ruled Egypt. However in 30 BC Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire and ceased to be an independent kingdom.

However the real end of Ancient Egypt came with Christianity. Christianity meant the end of the old religion and so the end of Ancient Egyptian culture. Lastly, a woman called Sobekneferu ruled Egypt around BC. Later a woman named Hatshepsut ruled Egypt c. Another woman, Twosret ruled Egypt c.