Essays academic service


A study of the phenomenon of the blackberry

The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at J Res Adolesc See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Two, 2-day transcripts collected four months apart within the same academic year were microcoded for content.

Results showed that most text message utterances were positive or neutral, and that adolescents sent text messages primarily to peers and to romantic partners. Only a few sex differences emerged. Frequency of text messages containing negative talk positively predicted overall internalizing symptoms and anxious depression.

Developmental Risks and Benefits of Text Messaging for Adolescents

Text messaging about sex was positively associated with overall internalizing and somatic complaints for girls, but not for boys. Youth ages 12 — 17 report sending an average of 60 text messages per day an increase from an average of 50 in 2009, Lenhart, 2012.

These pioneering studies have advanced our understanding of the extent to which adolescents and young adults are engaged in text messaging.

Youth may not be aware of the extent to which they engage in text messaging, they may not be cognizant of their own antisocial communication and cyberbullying, and they may deliberately choose not to report their high level of involvement in text messaging out of fear that adults might confiscate their electronic devices or to present themselves in a more positive light.

A few investigators have moved beyond questionnaires in investigating text messaging. In another study, participants were asked to share the content of their text messages in telephone surveys Ling, 2005.

  1. Other X 2 Participant Sex multiple analysis of variance MANOVA was conducted to examine the effects of extreme texting group and participant sex on anxious depression, withdrawn depression, and somatic complaints.
  2. Why would this be bigger than any other technological advance, or bigger than contactless payment technology itself? We expected that girls would engage in more text messaging than boys Lenhart et al.
  3. Second, text messaging may be a context in which adolescents experience the pain of social rejection and exclusion.
  4. Adolescents may send or receive hurtful remarks via text messaging that would not occur face-to-face, which can easily be forwarded, adding fuel to interpersonal conflicts and creating even greater pain for victims.

Given that adolescents report sending about 60 text messages per day Lenhart, 2012these participants were likely selective in the messages they shared. First, with whom are adolescents communicating via text messaging?

Second, what types of content are they communicating in this context? Third, are there gender differences in how adolescents use text messaging? Last, does sending particular types of text messages relate to internalizing problems over the first year of high school? Developmental Risks and Benefits of Text Messaging for Adolescents Experts have expressed strong concerns about adolescent text messaging because they fear it might be a venue for cyberbullying and for inappropriate sexual interactions with peers and adults Internet Safety Technical Task Force, 2008.

Despite these fears, text messaging may serve positive developmental functions for adolescents. Text messaging is a more intimate form of communication than Internet chat because it is more private and conducted between dyads or small groups who must know each other's phone numbers, whereas chat room communication is more public and accessible to anyone.

Cell phones serve to emancipate teenagers from their parents, and help them communicate intimately with peers Ling, 2005. With whom do adolescents communicate via text messaging? What do adolescents say in text messaging? Other frequent types of content were instructions 9.

Although the large surveys conducted by the Pew Study of the Internet and American Life did not directly assess content Lenhart et al. In other survey studies, high school girls reported texting more than boys Ling, 2005 and being more comfortable with all forms of Socially Interactive Technologies SIT's, Pierce, 2009. However, there are important reasons to move beyond self-report questionnaires in examining gender differences in electronic communication. Admitting to talking a lot via any form of communication is more consistent with the female gender stereotype; therefore, girls may be more likely to admit to frequent electronic communication on questionnaires.

However, these gender differences were less evident for 17-18 year-olds. Text Messaging and Internalizing Symptoms This study investigated whether frequency and content of text a study of the phenomenon of the blackberry in the first year of high school predicts internalizing symptoms. Internalizing symptoms were the focus here because this developmental period, from age 14 to 15, is the beginning of the highest risk period for major depression 6.

Theories of depression in adolescence emphasize the role of interpersonal stress as both a predictor and an outcome Rudolph, 2009 ; frequency and negative content of text messaging could generate interpersonal stress for youth. The scant evidence available suggests that text messaging may relate to internalizing symptoms: Text messaging may relate to the development of depression and anxiety for several reasons. Adolescents may send or receive hurtful remarks via text messaging that would not occur face-to-face, which can easily be forwarded, adding fuel to interpersonal conflicts and creating even greater pain for victims.

Second, text messaging may be a context in which adolescents experience the pain of social rejection and exclusion. Frequently sending and receiving text messages raises the odds that adolescents will experience regret and embarrassment, social exclusion, and cyberbullying in this context. Text messaging may relate to somatic complaints as part of an internalizing syndrome for the reasons described above, but also because sending and receiving text messages involves physiological arousal and may interfere with sleep.

An observational study of posture found that while texting participants had flexed necks and wrists in unnatural positions, which could contribute to musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis and a study of the phenomenon of the blackberry Gold et al.

Participants in this study were provided with BlackBerry devices with paid service plans, configured so that the content of their text messages was securely stored for later coding. We expected that girls would engage in more text messaging than boys Lenhart et al.

  • These pioneering studies have advanced our understanding of the extent to which adolescents and young adults are engaged in text messaging;
  • For this sample, reliabilities were also strong;
  • All but one of the kappa coefficients were in the substantial.

We hypothesized that negative content of text messaging would predict internalizing symptoms at the end of the first year of high school. We predicted that positive or neutral content of text messaging would be related to lower levels of internalizing symptoms because these types of messages may be sources of intimacy and companionship. We hypothesized that text messaging about sex would positively predict internalizing symptoms for this young sample because it is likely a source of interpersonal stress and possibly regret.

Last, we expected that texting would predict somatic complaints more than other internalizing symptoms because of the physiological demands and the likelihood that heavy involvement in text messaging may interfere with sleep. Method Participants Participants were 171 14-year-old adolescents 80 girls, 91 boys who are part of an ongoing longitudinal study of relationships and adjustment.

At the time of initial recruitment, this sample was representative of the urban county in the southern United States in which the study was conducted U. Parents reported family income on a 5-point scale: Participants were invited to be part of the longitudinal study when they were either finishing the third or beginning the fourth grade of a large public school district, by sending home letters asking families to join a 5-year study involving target children, best friends, and parents coming a study of the phenomenon of the blackberry the laboratory.

Users of text messaging were compared with nonusers on all measures of internalizing symptoms in grades 8 and 9 and no significant differences were found all p values exceeded.

Procedure Participants in this longitudinal study were assessed yearly in laboratory visits from 2003 — 2008, then in their homes or in the lab from 2009 — 2012. At the yearly assessment in the summer before 9th grade, participants were provided with BlackBerry devices with paid service plans, unlimited texting, and data plans providing direct access to the Internet.

Blackberry -- How RIM destroyed a great brand

Participants were encouraged to use the BlackBerries as their primary cell phone, but they were not prohibited from communicating online using computers and other devices so as not to constrain ecological validity.

Ceryx and Global Relay worked together to provide a daily digest a study of the phenomenon of the blackberry text messages sent and received for each participant, labeled with the date and time and phone number. At the time this study was conducted, only regular text messages were able to be archived, and not text messages sent by Internet based programs such as BlackBerry Messenger.

However, because all participants had unlimited text messaging plans paid for by the investigators, concerns about the costs of sending regular texts were minimized. All of these procedures were reviewed carefully for ethical concerns by scientific review groups at the National Institutes of Health, and were reviewed and approved yearly by our university Institutional Review Board.

A detailed discussion of the ethical challenges is provided in Underwood et al. In brief, participants and their parents were fully aware that all electronic communication was being stored and monitored, we obtained a Federal Certificate of Confidentiality and thus were not required to report illegal activities, and we were able to use the technology to search electronically for communication indicating child abuse, suicidal ideation, or intent to harm others.

Despite our monitoring, examination of usage data and the linguistic properties of a two-day sample of the text messaging indicated that participants were communicating frequently and openly using the BlackBerry devices Underwood et al. The average daily number of messages sent was 55, which corresponds to self-reports of frequency of texting Lenhart et al. Measures Coding of text messages Each utterance of text messaging was coded for time, sender, receiver, and content, according to a detailed microcoding system.

An utterance refers to a unit of communication that conveys a complete thought. Utterances ranged from full sentences e. Consistent with the overarching goals of our longitudinal study, we coded the content of text messaging communication for positive talk, neutral talk, utterances related to social aggression negative talk, social exclusion, friendship manipulationantisocial behavior, substance use, and sex.

Content codes, kappa coefficients, and examples are presented in the Appendix. Although participants commonly developed unique and creative ways of manipulating the language and spelling used in text messages, these adaptations were often formulaic and could be easily interpreted e.

When the content of a text message was not decipherable by a coder, it was discussed during ongoing coding meetings with the entire coding team. In the event that consensus could not be reached about what the content of the message was, the utterance was coded as neutral talk. We chose these two time periods to a study of the phenomenon of the blackberry the odds that we would see peer communication about important social events.

Teams of coders blind to the hypotheses of the study were trained over a period of 8 weeks to use the coding system a total of 21 codersthen met weekly for ongoing training and to discuss coding challenges.

Twenty percent of transcripts were also coded by the coding coordinator to examine reliability. The overall kappa coefficient for content codes was. All but one of the kappa coefficients were in the substantial. The overall kappa coefficient for the receiver of the text messages was.

BlackBerry’s accidental youth phenomenon could become a strategic web changer

When kappas were lower, it was due to ambiguity in the actual messages, which were often cryptic. Because number of text messaging units was so highly variable and because frequency of content and receiver codes was naturally correlated with number of texting units, both count and proportion scores were computed for content and receiver codes, as one way of making sure that apparent differences were not due only to higher numbers of text messaging units.

For each individual, frequency scores were created by summing the frequency for each code across the four days of microcoded data. Proportions were determined by dividing the sum of each content code by the sum of the total number of text messaging units for each individual for the four day period.

Given the exploratory nature of this investigation, analyses examining relations with internalizing problems focused on the content codes with the highest base rates: The positive-neutral category included all positive and neutral utterances that were not captured by any other of the content codes.

This negative talk code did not include utterances about aggression, victimization, substance use, or sex, because these were captured by other content codes. The kappa coefficient for this combined code was. The YI-4 is comprised of 128 four-point items 0 — Never; 1 — Sometimes; 2 — Often; 3 — Very Often examining a wide range of behaviors and personality traits.

Of interest for this study were the depression and somatization subscales. The somatization subscale includes two items: For this sample, reliabilities were also strong: Overview of analyses To examine what adolescents say in text messaging and with whom they communicate, analyses began with descriptive statistics for recipients and content of text messaging. Next, t-tests were conducted to examine gender differences for content and recipients.

Analyses examining relations with internalizing symptoms focused on the content codes with the highest base rates: To examine how the content of text messages relates to internalizing symptoms, three types of analyses were conducted. First, correlations were examined between internalizing symptoms and text messaging codes. Second, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine how frequencies of text messaging content predicted internalizing symptoms overall at the end of 9th grade, as well as anxious depression, withdrawn depression, and somatic complaints for a total of four regression models.

Because all internalizing variables were highly positively skewed, a study of the phenomenon of the blackberry root transformations were performed on 8th and 9th grade internalizing variables prior to analyses.

The scale scores all included a study of the phenomenon of the blackberry as a possible value, so a constant of 1 was added to all scores prior to transformation Kline, 2010.

To control for prior levels of internalizing symptoms, all analyses were conducted with 8th grade levels of internalizing depression plus somatic symptoms as one of the predictors, to determine whether text messaging frequency or content contributed to 9th grade internalizing symptoms above and beyond prior symptoms. Participant sex was dummy coded so that 1 indicated male and 0 indicated female, and interactions with sex were included in all regression analyses.

Other X 2 Participant Sex multiple analysis of variance MANOVA was conducted to examine the effects of extreme texting group and participant sex on anxious depression, withdrawn depression, and somatic complaints. Results With whom do adolescents communicate in text messaging? Table 1 shows the mean proportions of text messages sent to different types of interaction partners, as best that could be determined from the contact information and the content of the utterances.