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Guide to unix using linux fourth edition chapter 2

Early efforts[ edit ] Ivan Sutherland developed Sketchpad in 1963, widely held as the first graphical computer-aided design program. It used a light pen to create and manipulate objects in engineering drawings in realtime with coordinated graphics. In the 1970s, Engelbart's ideas were further refined and extended to graphics by researchers at Xerox PARC and specifically Alan Kaywho went beyond text-based hyperlinks and used a GUI as the main interface for the Xerox Alto computerreleased in 1973.

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Most modern general-purpose GUIs are derived from this system. The Xerox PARC user interface consisted of graphical elements such as windowsmenusradio buttonsand check boxes. The concept of icons was later introduced by David Canfield Smithwho had written a thesis on the subject under the guidance of Kay.

These aspects can be emphasized by using the alternative term and acronym for windows, icons, menus, pointing device WIMP. This effort culminated in the 1973 Xerox Altothe first computer with a GUI, though the system never reached commercial production. In 1981, Xerox eventually commercialized the Alto in the form of a new and enhanced system — the Xerox 8010 Information System — more commonly known as the Xerox Star.

Guide To UNIX Using Linux Fourth Edition

Visi On was released in 1983 for the IBM PC compatible computers, but was never popular due to its high hardware demands. These ideas evolved to create the interface found in current versions of Microsoft Windows, and in various desktop environments for Unix-like operating systemssuch as macOS and Linux. Thus most current GUIs have largely common idioms. Popularization[ edit ] GUIs were a hot topic in the early 1980s.

Individual applications for many platforms presented their own GUI variants.

Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Fourth Edition

The goal of the commercial was to make people think about computers, identifying the user-friendly interface as a personal computer which departed from prior business-oriented systems, [22] and becoming a signature representation of Apple products. This allows greater efficiency and productivity once many commands are learned, [1] [2] [3] but reaching this level takes some time because the command words may not be easily discoverable or mnemonic.

However, windows, icons, menus, pointer WIMP interfaces present users with many widgets that represent and can trigger some of the system's available commands. GUIs can be made quite hard when dialogs are buried deep in a system, or moved about to different places during redesigns. Also, icons and dialog boxes are usually harder for users to script. WIMPs extensively use modesas the meaning of all keys and clicks on specific positions on the screen are redefined all the time.

Command line interfaces use modes only in limited forms, such as for current directory and environment variables. GUI wrappers[ edit ] Graphical user interface GUI wrappers circumvent the command-line interface versions CLI of typically Linux and Unix-like software applications and their text-based user interfaces or typed command labels. While command-line or text-based application allow users to run a program non-interactively, GUI wrappers atop them avoid the steep learning curve of the command-line, which requires commands to be typed on the keyboard.

Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Fourth Edition

By starting a GUI wrapper, users can intuitively interact with, start, stop, and change its working parameters, through graphical icons and visual indicators of a desktop environmentfor example.

This is especially common with applications designed for Unix-like operating systems. The latter used to be implemented first because it allowed the developers to focus exclusively on their product's functionality without bothering about interface details such as designing icons and placing buttons.

Designing programs this way also allows users to run the program in a shell script. Three-dimensional user interfaces[ edit ] This section is about 3D user interfaces as software. For typical computer displays, three-dimensional is a misnomer—their displays are two-dimensional.

Semantically, however, most graphical user interfaces use three dimensions. With height and width, they offer a third dimension of layering or stacking screen elements over one another.

This may be represented visually on screen through an illusionary transparent effect, which offers the advantage that information in background windows may still be read, if not interacted with. Or the environment may simply hide the background information, possibly making the distinction apparent by drawing a drop shadow effect over it.

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Some environments use the methods of 3D graphics to project virtual three dimensional user interface objects onto the screen. These are often shown in use in science fiction films see below for examples. As the processing power of computer graphics hardware increases, this becomes less of an obstacle to a smooth user experience.

Three-dimensional graphics are currently mostly used in computer games, art, and computer-aided design CAD. Several attempts have been made to create a multi-user three-dimensional environment, including the Croquet Project and Sun's Project Looking Glass.

  • While command-line or text-based application allow users to run a program non-interactively, GUI wrappers atop them avoid the steep learning curve of the command-line, which requires commands to be typed on the keyboard;
  • The latter used to be implemented first because it allowed the developers to focus exclusively on their product's functionality without bothering about interface details such as designing icons and placing buttons;
  • The latter used to be implemented first because it allowed the developers to focus exclusively on their product's functionality without bothering about interface details such as designing icons and placing buttons.

Technologies[ edit ] This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. May 2012 The use of three-dimensional graphics has become increasingly common in mainstream operating systems, from creating attractive interfaces, termed eye candyto functional purposes only possible using three dimensions.

For example, user switching is represented by rotating a cube which faces are each user's workspace, and window management is represented via a Rolodex -style flipping mechanism in Windows Vista see Windows Flip 3D. In both cases, the operating system transforms windows on-the-fly while continuing to update the content of those windows. Another branch in the three-dimensional desktop environment is the three-dimensional GUIs that take the desktop metaphor a step further, like the BumpTopwhere users can manipulate documents and windows as if they were physical documents, with realistic movement and physics.

The zooming user interface ZUI is a related technology that promises to deliver the representation benefits of 3D environments without their usability drawbacks of orientation problems and hidden objects. It is a logical advance on the GUI, blending some three-dimensional movement with two-dimensional or 2. In 2006, Hillcrest Labs introduced the first zooming user interface for television, [32] In science fiction[ edit ] Three-dimensional GUIs appeared in science fiction literature and films before they were technically feasible or in common use.

Graphical user interface

For example; the 1993 American film Jurassic Park features Silicon Graphics ' three-dimensional file manager File System Navigatora real-life file manager for Unix operating systems.

The film Minority Report has scenes of police officers using specialized 3d data systems. In prose fiction, three-dimensional user interfaces have been portrayed as immersible environments like William Gibson 's Cyberspace or Neal Stephenson 's Metaverse.

Many futuristic imaginings of user interfaces rely heavily on object-oriented user interface OOUI style and especially object-oriented graphical user interface OOGUI style.