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International ship and port facility security code research paper

The methodology used was that of sourcing primary data via questionnaires and then subjecting the data to Chi-square test of Independence. More than purely a facilitator, maritime transport is also a significant exportable service in many countries and in the process international ship and port facility security code research paper directly to national gross Domestic product GDP.

In this occasion, access to a global network of reliable, efficient and cost-effective maritime transport service is beneficial to all countries including developed and developing countries, whose trade in price-sensitive goods often comprises a significant component of their economies WTO, 2004. Notwithstanding the crucial role maritime transport plays in our daily lives, it also carries with it significant risk factors which can jeopardize the economies of countries if unchecked.

Such risk factors include among others maritime terrorism and its potential negative effects on global transport chain. Historically, the security or safety of the vessel, its cargo, passenger and crew has been of great concern since vessels started going to sea and the advent of world trade. It is recalled that from earliest times the vessel, cargo, passengers and crew were jointly and severally exposed to pirates who can be said to continue the earliest group of terrorists known to marine transportation.

Safety measures such as carrying of some arms and ammunition, standard, recognized and authorized practice on the sea-going vessels which became the rather basic and rudimentary self-help security approach to shipping aimed at ensuring safety of the ship and cargo traveling across the sea from part of the world to the other.

There had to be an intervention and the world maritime community accordingly rose to the challenges. Spurred on by the United State of America, after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the most significant response to the issues of maritime terrorism was spear headed by the International Maritime Organisation IMO.

  • A major component of the technical requirement was the identification and upgrading of security infrastructure and equipment;
  • This unit controls unlawful acts such as;
  • It is also to be noted that plans are in place for regional security advisory committees and maritime security co-ordination centres to be established in due course.

In attempt to meet up with this new task of international ship and port facility security code research paper Port security, IMO came up with other international maritime security measures at a conference of Maritime Security held in December, 2002 in London adopting the new provision in the international convention on the Safety of Life at Sea.

Since its introduction, its effects have been varying for the maritime community due mainly to the high cost of compliance to the provisions of the Code. In a nutshell, the Code has presented compliance challenges to maritime administration especially those of the developing countries.

Compliance to the provisions of the Code is mandatory if international ship and port facility security code research paper maritime nation is to remain relevant in the global maritime industry. This compliance is said to be at a disproportionately higher cost in Nigeria due to her relatively low capacity in terms of finance, trade, technology and its ramifications.

The proposal by the IMO was made because of the terrorist acts against shipping and ports, for instance, the use of a gas tanker as an explosive device in a major port city, an attack on a large cruise ship or the explosion or deliberate sinking of vessels in the canals or heavily trafficked shipping lines would be devastating to the thousands of persons immediately affected. Also there would be enormous commercial, environment and public health consequences. The basic function of the ISPC code is not only iin the aspect of security enhancement but also in having fore knowledge or recognition on a non-discriminatory bases of the characteristics and baheviour patterns of persons who are likely to threaten security, the fore-though of detention of weapon, dangerous substances and devices and fore knowledge of security and surveillance equipments and system and their operational limitations.

S CODE Following the terrorist attacks on the twin towers in New York, United States of America on 11th September, 2001, there was deep concerns and fears by Governments and operators in the maritime industry that the likely next target of terrorist attack could be in the maritime industry.

This concern was reinforced by various media and the industry in the months and years preceding the adoption of the ISPS Code. Accordingly, maritime and port security consequently generated significant attention both at the national and international levels.

There were fears that a terrorist incident directed at the international transport system could lead to interrupted service, port and terminal closures, delays to cargo and passenger traffic with potential catastrophic effects on world trade. The deduction here is clear, and that is, the terrorist fear appears real and the impact of such attacks could be catastrophic. One of the main objectives of the Code is to establish an international framework involving co-operation between Contracting Governments, government agencies, local administrations and the shipping and port industries, to detect security threats and to take preventive measures against security incidents affecting ships or port facilities used in international trade ISPS Code, 2003.

The operation of the Code is barely in its third year. However, because of the strategic importance of shipping in the global economy and the interest the introduction of the Code has generated for the stake holders, much has been written about the Code and its implementation in relation to the effects it has had on the shipping and maritime activities albeit the developed countries.

So far the approach has been piece meal, dealing with issues as they affect aspects of the industry and not necessarily a holistic picture of the challenges the developing countries, as important players in the maritime industry had to contend with.

  • Hence in order to communicate the threat at the port facility or for a ship, the contracting government will set the appropriate security level;
  • In conclusion, it has been generally agreed that the code have contributed immensely to port security and efficient port operations and that the Code has presented compliance challenges to the maritime administration;
  • These requirements will include;
  • Compliance to the provisions of the Code is mandatory if any maritime nation is to remain relevant in the global maritime industry;
  • Induced changes in behaviours, potentials less globalization, less international co-operations and more protectionism will potentially lead to a much inefficient allocation of global economic resources and may lead to significant drops in productivity growth;
  • They guide or prevent things that are offensive to the states especially in the area of arms and ammunition.

Available literature on the subject matter has concentrated more on the general application of the Code than on the effects it has had on the developing countries even when indications are that the measures have potential significant implications for trading practices and by extension transaction cost for developing countries UNCTAD, 2003: Additionally, implementation of trade and transport facilitation measures has in the recent past been at the forefront of recent international deliberations and have to some extent influenced the international trade agenda in relation to the competitiveness for many developing countries UNCTAD, 2003.

The emergence of global and regional approaches with stringent conditions has increased transaction cost with a negative impact on trading particularly on developing countries.

An example of such a regional approach will suffice here. This partnership operates by memberships only and because of low technological base and lack of adequate financial capacity, almost all developing countries are not partners in this initiative.

The implication is that transaction costs are increased due to the problem of additional costs to C-TPAT compliant ports usually located far away from the port of any developing country. A major challenge which the developing countries have had to face is putting in place the necessary procedures and equipment to comply with such regulations.

Such challenges as indicated earlier include inadequate financial capacity, lack of adequate technological know-how and the resultant high cost of international ship and port facility security code research paper of the Code. This is likely to create a situation whereby compliance may be half-hearted with obvious implications for the shipping industry. Accordingly, this publication failed to provide an assessment of the effects of ISPS Code either on the part of developing countries as they relate to implementation.

In the global chain of maritime security, there is hardly any room for a weak link in compliance. The additional effort to address the implications of the introduction of the ISPS Code on the developing countries is contained in Jones 2006: It is a recent publication with an incisive analysis of the implications of the measure to improve maritime security and indeed the ISPS Code on the seafarers.

A situational report MMSA: The report added that these Filipino seafarers are the major earners of foreign exchange in the Philippines. Information shows that total foreign exchange remittances to the Filipino economy by the seafarers in 1992 alone were 44.

A PAPER ON THE INTERNATIONAL SHIP AND PORT FACILITY SECURITY CODE (ISPS)

Accordingly, any measures that adversely on the earnings of these seafarers, to that extent that it could be said that the Code has negatively affected the economy of a developing country. The approach of the ITF has been sectoral, dealing with such issues as additional work load for the seafarers as a result of the ISPS Code, manning levels for vessels, issues relating to wages, shore leave etc 9ITF Questionnaire, 2005.

The publication did not deal with specific issues relating to comprehensive implementation of the Code by the developing countries. Another study which seemed to have partly addressed the subject of this project is contained in the commentary of Rubiato and Spiliopoulos UNCTAD, 2003: The commentary had highlighted the various concerns for developing countries which included additional transport costs, additional operational costs, and competitiveness of shipping activities in the developing countries and the lack of expertise to operate security systems.

These concerns may have contributed to the slowness on the part of developing countries to fully implement the provisions of the Code. Compliance with the Code places strong demands on the national shipping administration and the relevant government departments responsible for ports and port facilities with the result that many developing countries are struggling to cope.

On the other hand, many developing countries would rather give priority to economic development, poverty alleviation and other issues of daily subsistence rather than invest heavily in the capacity to implement the code which they consider to be more in the interest of the Western and more developed countries such as the United States of America CHA, 2004.

However, there is still the need to explore and investigate these generalization further in the light of the fact that the Code is mandatory and leaves no developing country any latitude for manoeuvering. As noticed in the use of September 11, 2001 attack on USA where both her economy and the global economy was fragile.

It brings increasing instruments in defence industry and security purpose in general. These instrument are likely to crowed out other investments. It has made trade more difficult. Thus, the implementation of additional security measures has imposed large direct and indirect cost on travel activities and freight services.

  1. Problems are compounded by dilapidated port infrastructure, unreliable power supplies and intermittent land and mobile communications.
  2. The ISPS Code compliance initiative also had the requirement for the identification of 24 hour national contact person and other necessary contact types as follows. So far the approach has been piece meal, dealing with issues as they affect aspects of the industry and not necessarily a holistic picture of the challenges the developing countries, as important players in the maritime industry had to contend with.
  3. The Regem Limited, Abuja. They help in the maintenance of surveillance over ship, cargoes and port facilities.

Induced changes in behaviours, potentials less globalization, less international co-operations and more protectionism will potentially lead to a much inefficient allocation of global economic resources and may lead to significant drops in productivity growth. Increase in security measures by international Maritime Organization and increase public expenditure in USA particularly with 2003 budget of 2. There are a good number of security agents in the seaport ranging to 33-36 existing in the agents, but the most important amongst them are considered below: This is an arm of the National Law Enforcement agents in the national maritime trade.

They help in the maintenance of surveillance over ship, cargoes and port facilities. More so, they protect dock workers from angry mob, keep order in the vicinity of an incident and assisted with communication supports.

This unit controls unlawful acts such as: Controlling of smuggling of contraband goods, Examination of all cargoes received in the ports, Assist the Federal Government to collect revenue, They play complementary role with the Nigerian Navy on water controls. This security unit places a serious check on the crews and officers on board the vessel. They check on the validity of passenger passport to avoid illegal entrance into the country.

They are as well change with the responsibility to put into force the Federal Government Laws within the terrestrial waters of Nigeria to intercept sea piracies and smuggles and protection Economic Exclusive Zones EEZ. Navy still finds application in the areas like. Search and Rescue Operations SARCo-ordination of coast guard duties, Promotion of hydrograph, oceanographic, environment and weather sources NavigationsTo provide current and tidal tables, To assist in provision vessels for oil recovery.

These law enforcement agents ensure to make surveillance flight over the scene of any security incident, they help in effective application of communication gadget like the Universal Automatic Identification System UAIS and long range Identification and tracking down of ships I. They also assist navy in the Rescue Operations of Distress calls. This security agent appears on multi coloured cloths, this enables them to track-down criminal in the ports normally in most hide-out.

In fact their presence in an area deters nefarious activities in the sense that you cannot identify their true presence and puts everyone in great suspense and tension. They guide or prevent things that are offensive to the states especially in the area of arms and ammunition.

These are security officials international ship and port facility security code research paper trained by the NPA or other recognized security organizations in the country. They are specially trained and employed for NPA related matters. They are more or less seen in lack trousers or skirts, green ranks epaulets and black beret to be in form.

To begin the process, each contracting government will conduct port facility assessment; security assessment will have three essential components. First, they must identify and evaluate important assets and infrastructures that are critical to the port facility as well as those areas or structures that if damaged, could cause significant loss of life or damaged to the port facilities economy or environment. Then, the assessment must identify the actual threats to those critical assets and infrastructure in order to priotise security measures.

Once this assessment has been completed, contracting government can accurately evaluate risk. This risk management concept will be embodied in the code through a number of minimum functional security requirements for ships and ports facilities.

For ships, these requirements will include: Ship security plans, Ship security officers, Company security officers, Certain onboard equipment.

These requirements will include: Port facility security plans, Port facility security officers, Certain security equipments, In addition, the requirement for ships and port facilities include: Monitoring and control access, Monitoring the activities of people and cargo, Ensuring security communication are ready available. Since each class of ship and port facility present different risk, the method in which they will meet the specific requirement of this code will be determined and eventually be approved by the administration or contracting government, as the case may be.

Hence in order to communicate the threat at the port facility or for a ship, the contracting government will set the appropriate security level. Security levels 1,2 and 3 correspond to normal, medium and high threat situations, respectively.

The security level creates a link between the ship and port facility. The negative effect of having around and within the ports the presence of undesirable persons is becoming more organized in nature. This act of astigmatism brought about by the so called wharf-rats, smugglers, drug pushers in ports, only find way in the port solely for the purpose of vandalization, pilferage and theft activities.

The cause unnecessary extortions, youthful rampages and crises in the port. The activities of the so-called hooligans, creates an atmosphere of insecurity in the port, hence making the port unattractive, unsafe and risk for maritime trade. In other development, the over-crowding of the port security agents all edge and corners makes the operation boring in the sense that they are busy doing little or nothing. They cause confusion here and there, thereby intimidation to the innocent citizens.

In most cases, the port policies precisely ganged up with the wharf rats in looting cargoes, smuggling and drug trafficking.