Essays academic service

Research paper on children in front of tv eating more

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Methods 7915 children mean age: Data on meals eaten the day before questionnaire administration and the frequency of eating meals while watching TV were collected. Height and weight of the children were objectively assessed. Conclusions The odds of being overweight was lower for children who ate breakfast and dinner compared to those who did not eat the respective meals.

The odds of being overweight was lower for children who reported to never watch TV at lunch and dinner compared to those who did.

How Media Use Affects Your Child

A focus towards meal frequency and watching TV during meals in longitudinal and interventions studies in prevention of overweight and obesity, may contribute to a better understanding of causality. Children, Weight status, Meals, Breakfast, TV viewing, Never TV at meals Background There is convincing evidence for an increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents across Europe and beyond over the past decades [ 1 - 3 ]. Overweight and obesity are the results of a positive energy balance over time [ 4 ].

Childhood overweight may track into adulthood [ 5 ], therefore it is of great importance to promote obesity prevention at an early stage.

Page not available

Main meals are often defined as eating breakfast, lunch and dinner [ 7 ]. Researchers have regarded skipping breakfast as a behavior associated with the risk of becoming overweight during adolescence [ 89 ]. Eating breakfast on a regular basis together with a regular meal pattern have in cross-sectional studies been shown to be associated with lower risk for overweight and obesity among children and adolescents [ 10 - 12 ].

Several observational studies described in a review showed a consistent cross-sectional association of skipping meals with an increased obesity risk in children, but not a longitudinal association [ 13 ]. Also a possible protective effect of an increased daily meal frequency on obesity in children has been reported [ 1112 ].

It has been well established that high levels of sedentary behavior are associated with an increased risk of weight gain [ 1415 ] and metabolic disease [ 16 ] - but the evidence among children is certainly not conclusive [ 17 ].

Most research is related to television TV viewing [ 1819 ] and other screen time activities [ 2021 ], i. Several potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain the relationship between TV research paper on children in front of tv eating more and obesity, including increased energy intake [ 23 ], reduced time available for physical activity [ 24 ], increased sedentary behavior [ 25 ] and reduced resting metabolic rate [ 26 ] for which there is little supporting evidence [ 27 ].

Recently, there has been more attention towards the influence of TV advertising of food and beverages that targets children as an important driver of childhood and adolescent obesity [ 28 ].

Thus, the relationship between TV watching and obesity may not only be due to the sedentary activity as such, but may also be partly associated with eating behaviors in front of the TV. Observational studies have reported positive associations between prevalence of TV viewing during meals both with higher mean BMI and poorer dietary quality [ 2930 ].

Both watching TV and eating while watching TV have been found to be positively and independently associated with overweight [ 30 ], suggesting that both sedentary behaviors from time spent watching TV as well as eating while watching TV contribute to overweight in children [ 30 ]. There might also be a link between high TV viewing and an unhealthy lifestyle in general [ 31 ].

The relationship between the main meals and not only breakfast and overweight and obesity, and also if watching TV while eating meals is associated with overweight and obesity has to our knowledge not been studied in a large cross European sample of children at this age. However, high rates of overweight and obesity has been shown to be associated with watching TV during meals in a younger sample of children [ 32 ].

These issues are important to gain more insight in, since they could be possible targets for early prevention of overweight and obesity in children.

The aims of this study were to assess: The design and conceptual framework of the project [ 33 ], as well as a description of the cross-sectional survey [ 34 ], have been previously published.

Probing Question: Does eating while watching TV harm kids?

The present study was conducted according to the guidelines in the Declaration of Helsinki and all procedures involving human subjects were approved by the relevant ethical committees and ministries in each participating country [ 34 ]. Sample and procedure Seven countries were included in the school-based survey Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spainconducted between March and July 2010. Switzerland later joined the research consortium and started their survey in May 2010 and distributed the last questionnaires in December 2010.

A national sample frame was used in Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands and Slovenia, while schools from specific regions were sampled in Spain, Belgium, Norway and Switzerland. The sample size was calculated to detect differences in overweight prevalence between countries. Based on previous cross-European studies a sample of 1000 schoolchildren per country, and one parent the main caretaker for each child, were aimed for.

  • The pre-schoolers watched a 22-minute cartoon video that had nothing to do with food;
  • This article has been cited by other articles in PMC;
  • As a parent, choosing healthier foods and beverages, while limiting the use of electronic devices can help to reinforce the habits you are trying to encourage in your children.

A school recruitment letter was sent to the headmaster of the sampled schools, followed by a personal telephone call. The pupils completed a questionnaire in the classroom in the presence of a trained project worker approx. Children participating in the study received a questionnaire to take home for completion by one of their parents. Completed parent questionnaires were brought back to the school in a closed envelope by the children and were collected by the teacher.

The 7915 children constitute the study sample in the present study. Measures All measures were conducted according to standardized protocols across the participating countries [ 34 ]. Consistency of questionnaires was further ensured by translating the original questionnaire developed in English into each relevant language and then back-translating into English.

Only parts of the child questionnaire will be used in the present study, and further information regarding the procedures and training of research staff, and more about other measures [ 34 ] are published elsewhere.

Weight status Body height and weight were measured by trained research assistants. The children were measured in light clothing without shoes. Body height was measured with a Seca Leicester Portable stadiometer accuracy of 0.

How TV Can Influence What Your Child Eats

Weight was measured with a calibrated electronic scale SECA 861 accuracy of 0. Two readings of each measurement were obtained. All three measurements were recorded and the outlier was excluded during the data cleaning process and the mean of the two remaining recordings was calculated. BMI was calculated for each child and the definition of weight status normal weight, overweight, obesity was based on the International Obesity Task Force criteria [ 35 ].

The ethnicity variable was dichotomized into: Parental educational level was assessed in the parent questionnaire.

  • This makes behaviors like smoking and drinking alcohol seem acceptable and might lead to substance abuse problems;
  • When your kids ask for the products advertised, explain that commercials and other ads are designed to make people want things they don't necessarily need;
  • Children who consistently spend more than 4 hours per day watching TV are more likely to be overweight;
  • When your kids ask for the products advertised, explain that commercials and other ads are designed to make people want things they don't necessarily need;
  • A team from the University of Birmingham in the United Kingdom scoured the medical literature for studies that have looked at how attention and memory affect food intake.

In this international dataset this approximately distinguishes families with at least one caregiver who has completed medium or higher vocational, college or university training from other families.

Test-retest reliability of the three meals recall items was 0. A variable was created showing the number of meals eaten yesterday 0—1, 2 or 3 meals. It was only 0. Prevalence of watching TV while eating meals was assessed with a frequency question: The frequency score was dichotomized into never watching TV i.

This rather strict dichotomization was chosen in order to separate those never watching TV during meals from the rest. A variable indicating TV watching at 1, 2 or 3 meals was created.

  • Of course, it's nearly impossible to remove all exposure to marketing messages;
  • By paying attention to what you are putting into your mouth, you are more likely to make healthier food choices;
  • Measures All measures were conducted according to standardized protocols across the participating countries [ 34 ];
  • Simply telling kids that those images aren't real won't make them feel better, because they can't yet tell the difference between fantasy and reality;
  • Multitasking—like eating while watching television or working—and distracted or hurried eating can prompt you to eat more;
  • In a study published in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association in April, Francis and Birch looked at 24 children from 3 to 5 years old.

Total TV time was assessed by the question: Test-retest reliability of the total TV time item was 0. Chi-square tests were performed to calculate proportions classified as normal weight, overweight and obese, according to gender, ethnicity, level of parental education and country.

To determine if the meals variables were associated with each other, and if the never TV at meals variables were associated with each other, we performed Chi-square tests crude associations between pairs of categorical variables. However, this association was not statistically significant for the relationship between eating lunch and eating dinner. As the ENERGY cross-sectional survey used a nested design with children nested within schools, proxies for intra class correlation coefficients ICC were calculated based on the proposal by Twisk [ 37 ].

Therefore, we did not further adjust for the nested design. Analyses with subpopulations with fewer than five observations were classified as non-applicable Na with regard to the validity of the analysis [ 38 ]. Table 1 Descriptive analysis of the proportions classified as normal weight, overweight and obese, as well as those who consumed breakfast, lunch and dinner yesterday, and never TV watching at breakfast, lunch and dinner, related to weight status, gender, parental education, ethnicity and country Total.