Essays academic service

The differences in the market conditions before and after the industrial revolution in britain

Watch this video from PBS Newshour about urbanization today in less developed countries. What role, if any, do you think the government should take to improve conditions in the new industrial cities? Choose the answer that best represents your point of view: The government should not intervene in the free market to regulate industrial pollution or the filth in working-class neighborhoods. The government did not force migrants to come to the cities; they came of their own free will. As the economy grows, the workers will earn better wages and have the resources to improve their neighborhoods or move to better ones.

The government should establish a commission to investigate the negative effects of industrialization on urban life. Public Health and Life Expectancy In the first half of the 19th century, urban overcrowding, poor diets, poor sanitation, and essentially medieval medical remedies all contributed to very poor public health for the majority of English people.

The densely packed and poorly constructed working-class neighborhoods contributed to the fast spread of disease. Roads were muddy and lacked sidewalks.

Effects of the Industrial Revolution

Houses were built touching each other, leaving no room for ventilation. Perhaps most importantly, homes lacked toilets and sewage systems, and as a result, drinking water sources, such as wells, were frequently contaminated with disease.

Cholera, tuberculosis, typhus, typhoid, and influenza ravaged through new industrial towns, especially in poor working-class neighborhoods. In 1849, 10,000 people died of cholera in three months in London alone "Public Health Timeline". Tuberculosis claimed 60,000 to 70,000 lives in each decade of the 19th century Robinson.

People who received medical treatment in the first half of the 19th century likely worsened under the care of trained doctors and untrained quacks. Doctors still used remedies popular during the Middle Ages, such as bloodletting and leeching.

They concocted toxic potions of mercury, iron, or arsenic. They also encouraged heavy use of vomiting and laxatives, both of which severely dehydrated patients and could contribute to early death, especially among infants and children whose bodies would lose water dangerously fast Robinson.

Even though there were more doctors in the cities, life expectancy was much lower there than in the country. Poor nutrition, disease, lack of sanitation, and harmful medical care in these urban areas had a devastating effect on the average life expectancy of British people in the first half of the 19th century.

The Registrar General reported in 1841 that the average life expectancy in rural areas of England was 45 years of age but was only 37 in London and an alarming 26 in Liverpool Haley. What role, if any, do you think the government should take to improve public health in the new industrial cities? The government should not intervene in the free market to improve public health.

Citizens are free to hire a doctor, go to a hospital, or seek their own medical remedies, as they have for centuries. Government has not been and should not be in the business of building houses for poor people.

If the government were to provide free housing, medical care, and water, it would have to raise taxes enormously on businesses and citizens, which would hurt the economy a great deal. For the benefit of the common good, the government should establish a commission to investigate public health in new industrial cities. The government should then set standards and regulations to ensure that drinking water is safe. It should start by making sure that cities have safe sewage systems that do not infect drinking water.

This job is too large for members of the working class to fix on their own. Child Labor Child labor was, unfortunately, integral to the first factories, mines, and mills in England.

In textile mills, as new power looms and spinning mules took the place of skilled workers, factory owners used cheap, unskilled labor to decrease the cost of production. And, child labor was the cheapest labor of all. Some of these machines were so easy to operate that a small child could perform the simple, repetitive tasks.

History of the Industrial Revolution

Some maintenance tasks, such as squeezing into tight spaces, could be performed more easily by children than adults. And, children did not try to join workers unions or go on strike. Ashton 93 The tedious and dangerous factory work had negative effects on the health of children. Many appeared to be no older than seven. In the 1830s, the British Parliament began investigating the conditions in factories for children.

One Member of Parliament, Michael Sadler, started a committee, in 1832, to send investigators out to factories to interview children and gather evidence about their working conditions. Sadler sought to pass a bill through Parliament to decrease child labor and regulate all factories to have a 10-hour work day. The transcripts from these investigations survive today as some of the best primary source evidence of child labor.

Read the following accounts. Matthew Crabtree, interviewed in 1832.

Del Sol Watch these short documentary videos to learn about the millions of children working as laborers today in countries around the world.

What role, if any, do you think the government should take to regulate child labor? The government should not intervene in the free market to regulate child labor. If parents do not want their children to work in factories, then they should not send them there. It is the responsibility of the parents to find a suitable living or working environment for their children. If the government regulates factory owners, it will increase the cost of doing business for all these new growing industries and decrease economic growth and jobs.

The government should establish a commission to investigate child labor in the new factories and mills. The government should also consider passing child labor laws that set a maximum number of hours that children should be allowed to work each day. The government should also consider investing in a public school system to educate its citizens.

In traditional, agricultural society, families worked together as a unit of production, tending to fields, knitting sweaters, or tending to the fire. Women could parent and also play a role in producing food or goods needed for the household. Work and play time were flexible and interwoven. Industrialization changed all that.

The same specialization of labor that occurred in factories occurred in the lives of working-class families, and this broke up the family economy. Work and home life became sharply separated. Men earned money for their families. Women took care of the home and saw their economic role decline.

Homestead Strike

While many factory workers were initially women, most of them were young women who would quit working when they married. In stark contrast to the various changing tasks that a farmer performed in pre-industrial society, factory workers typically completed repetitive and monotonous tasks for 10 to 14 hours each day.

Industrial working-class families, though not working together, did serve an economic purpose of raising money to support each other. As we have seen, children often worked to earn some income for the family. In difficult circumstances, mothers struggled to make ends meet and keep the family out of the poorhouses. Jane Goode, a working-class mother, testified before the British Factory Commission in 1833. The history of her family shows the worries and stresses of a mother struggling to survive.

Her life shows the unfortunately common death rate of infants. Jane Goode had twelve children, but five died before the age of two: I have had five children that have all worked at the factory. I have only one that works there now. She works in the card-room.

She minds the drawing-head. She gets 5 shillings 9 pence. She pays it all to me. She has worked there nine years. She has been at the drawing-head all the while. She got 2 shilling when she first went. She was just turned seven. Mary did not work here [at the factory] long. She went in about fourteen or fifteen. She was married last summer.

  • Home remained separate from work and took on the role of emotional support, where women of the house created a moral and spiritual safe harbor away from the rough-and-tumble industrial world outside;
  • Thompson argues that they did not;
  • The history of her family shows the worries and stresses of a mother struggling to survive;
  • Men earned money for their families;
  • In addition, the economy was highly dependent on two sectors—agriculture of subsistence and cotton, and technical innovation was non-existent.

She is thirty next June. She is nineteen next June. John was not eight when he went in; he is now twenty-two. I have had twelve children altogether. I thought you were asking only of those who worked at the mill.

There were five that died before they were a quarter of a year old. Mr Samuel Wilson now dead came to Derby to get my hand, and I engaged with him with my family. I did it to keep my children off the parish [welfare]. Frader 87-88 Betty Wardle, interviewed by the parliamentary commission on women in mines in 1842, illustrates the incredible challenges of being a mother and a worker in coal mines: Have you ever worked in a coal pit?

Ay, I have worked in a pit since I was six years old Q: Have you any children? I have had four children; two of them were born while I worked in the pits. Did you work in the pits while you were in the family way [pregnant]? Ay, to be sure.