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The first occurrence of the ebola virus discovered

The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. The 2014—2016 outbreak in West Africa involved major urban areas as well as rural ones. Community engagement is key to successfully controlling outbreaks. Good outbreak control relies on applying a package of interventions, namely case management, infection prevention and control practices, surveillance and contact tracing, a good laboratory service, safe and dignified burials and social mobilisation.

Early supportive care with rehydration, symptomatic treatment improves survival. There is as yet no licensed treatment proven to neutralize the virus but a range of blood, immunological and drug therapies are under development. Background The Ebola virus causes an acute, serious illness which is often fatal if untreated.

The latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name. The 2014—2016 outbreak in West Africa was the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak since the virus was first discovered in 1976. There were more cases and deaths in this outbreak than all others combined. It also spread between countries, starting in Guinea then moving across land borders to Sierra Leone and Liberia.

Ebola Virus Hemorrhagic Fever

The virus family Filoviridae includes three genera: Cuevavirus, Marburgvirus, and Ebolavirus. Within the genus Ebolavirus, five species have been identified: The first three, Bundibugyo ebolavirus, Zaire ebolavirus, and Sudan ebolavirus have been associated with large outbreaks in Africa. The virus causing the 2014—2016 West African outbreak belongs to the Zaire ebolavirus species. Transmission It is thought that fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are natural Ebola virus hosts.

  1. Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases. Ebola is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines found ill or dead or in the rainforest.
  2. Ebola survivors and their sexual partners should either. The overall shape of virions varies considerably ranging from simple cylinders to branches, loops and reverse direction.
  3. When in close contact within 1 metre of patients with EBV, health-care workers should wear face protection a face shield or a medical mask and goggles , a clean, non-sterile long-sleeved gown, and gloves sterile gloves for some procedures. In women who have been infected while pregnant, the virus persists in the placenta, amniotic fluid and fetus.
  4. The first report mentioned eight suspected cases, including two deaths, with a third death reported on May 12. When in close contact within 1 metre of patients with EBV, health-care workers should wear face protection a face shield or a medical mask and goggles , a clean, non-sterile long-sleeved gown, and gloves sterile gloves for some procedures.

Ebola is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines found ill or dead or in the rainforest. Ebola then spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact through broken skin or mucous membranes with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people, and with surfaces and materials e.

Health-care workers have frequently been infected while treating patients with suspected or confirmed EVD. This has occurred through close contact with patients when infection control precautions are not strictly practiced.

Burial ceremonies that involve direct contact with the body of the deceased can also contribute in the transmission of Ebola. People remain infectious as long as their blood contains the virus.

  1. Reducing the risk of possible sexual transmission, based on further analysis of ongoing research and consideration by the WHO Advisory Group on the Ebola Virus Disease Response, WHO recommends that male survivors of Ebola virus disease practice safe sex and hygiene for 12 months from onset of symptoms or until their semen tests negative twice for Ebola virus.
  2. Historical Outbreaks and the Studied Cases Ebola virus disseminates in Black Africa, where it often drives large outbreaks of acute hemorrhagic fever with high fatality rate 55. Based on further analysis of ongoing research and consideration by the WHO Advisory Group on the Ebola Virus Disease Response, WHO recommends that male survivors of Ebola virus disease practice safe sex and hygiene for 12 months from onset of symptoms or until their semen tests negative twice for Ebola virus.
  3. Isolates obtained from the samplings confirmed the presence of Zaire Ebola Virus ZEBOV ; viruses that caused severe hemorrhagic fever outbreak among the people of Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1995 and 231 people died out of 300 affected people. The fatal outcome is also associated with the aberrant innate immune responses due to massive intravascular B- and T-lymphocyte apoptosis that induced profound suppression of adaptive immunity in experimentally infected animals and humans 51 , 52.
  4. Laboratory findings include low white blood cell and platelet counts and elevated liver enzymes. Outbreak containment measures, including prompt and safe burial of the dead, identifying people who may have been in contact with someone infected with Ebola and monitoring their health for 21 days, the importance of separating the healthy from the sick to prevent further spread, and the importance of good hygiene and maintaining a clean environment.
  5. How common is Ebola hemorrhagic fever?

Sexual transmission More surveillance data and research are needed on the risks of sexual transmission, and particularly on the prevalence of viable and transmissible virus in semen over time. In the interim, and based on present evidence, WHO recommends that: All Ebola survivors and their sexual partners should receive counselling to ensure safe sexual practices until their semen has twice tested negative.

Survivors should be provided with condoms. Male Ebola survivors should be offered semen testing at 3 months after onset of disease, and then, for those who test positive, every month thereafter until their semen tests negative for virus twice by RT-PCR, with an interval of one week between tests.

Ebola survivors and their sexual partners should either: Having tested negative, survivors can safely resume normal sexual practices without fear of Ebola virus transmission. Based on further analysis of ongoing research and consideration by the WHO Advisory Group on the Ebola Virus Disease Response, WHO recommends that male survivors of Ebola virus disease practice safe sex and hygiene for 12 months from onset of symptoms or until their semen tests negative twice for Ebola virus.

Until such time as their semen has twice tested negative for Ebola, survivors should practice good hand and personal hygiene by immediately and thoroughly washing with soap and water after any physical contact with semen, including after masturbation. During this period used condoms should be handled safely, and safely disposed of, so as to prevent contact with seminal fluids. All survivors, their partners and families should be shown respect, dignity and compassion.

For more, read the Guidance on clinical care for survivors of Ebola virus disease Symptoms of Ebola virus disease The incubation period, that is, the time interval from infection with the virus to onset of symptoms is 2 to 21 days. Humans are not infectious until they develop symptoms.

Outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in Africa: the beginnings of a tragic saga

First symptoms are the sudden onset of fever fatigue, muscle pain, headache and sore throat. This is followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, symptoms of impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding e.

  • For viral fusion, viruses mostly exploit the endocytic routes and through that, they access cytoplasm by macropinosomes, caveolae and clathrin-coated vesicles pathways;
  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4;
  • It is said that the current outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa found its roots from a single zoonotic transmission event by a two year old boy in Meliandou, Guinea 10;
  • Patients infected with Ebola are given supportive therapy;
  • Persons in the United States are at risk only if they have had contact with blood or body fluids from patients who are ill and infected with Ebola virus.

Laboratory findings include low white blood cell and platelet counts and elevated liver enzymes. Persistent virus in people recovering from Ebola virus disease Ebola virus is known to persist in immune-privileged sites in some people who have recovered from Ebola virus disease.

These sites include the testicles, the inside of the eye, and the central nervous system. In women who have been infected while pregnant, the virus persists in the placenta, amniotic fluid and fetus.

In women who have been infected while breastfeeding, the virus may persist in breast milk. Studies of viral persistence indicate that in a small percentage of survivors, some body fluids may test positive on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR for Ebola virus for longer than 9 months.

Relapse-symptomatic illness in someone who has recovered from EVD due to increased replication of the virus in a specific site is a rare event, but has been documented. Reasons for this phenomenon are not yet fully understood.

Diagnosis It can be difficult to clinically distinguish EVD from other infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever and meningitis. Confirmation that symptoms are caused by Ebola virus infection are made using the following diagnostic methods: Careful consideration should be given to the selection of diagnostic tests, which take into account technical specifications, disease incidence and prevalence, and social and medical implications of test results.

It is strongly recommended that diagnostic tests, which have undergone an independent and international evaluation, be considered for use.

Transmission

Current WHO recommended tests include: Automated or semi-automated nucleic acid tests NAT for routine diagnostic management. Rapid antigen detection tests for use in remote settings where NATs are not readily available. These tests are recommended for screening purposes as part of surveillance activities, however reactive tests should be confirmed with NATs.

  • However, a range of potential treatments including blood products, immune therapies and drug therapies are currently being evaluated;
  • Ebola virus is spread through contact with blood and other body fluids of a person ill with the disease;
  • The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission.

The preferred specimens for diagnosis include: Whole blood collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EDTA from live patients exhibiting symptoms. Oral fluid specimen stored in universal transport medium collected from deceased patients or when blood collection is not possible.

Samples collected from patients are an extreme biohazard risk; laboratory testing on non-inactivated samples should be conducted under maximum biological containment conditions. All biological specimens should be packaged using the triple packaging system when transported nationally and internationally.

Treatment and vaccines Supportive care-rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids- and treatment of specific symptoms, improves survival. There is as yet no proven treatment available for EVD. However, a range of potential treatments including blood products, immune therapies and drug therapies are currently being evaluated.

Years of Ebola Virus Disease Outbreaks

An experimental Ebola vaccine proved highly protective against the deadly virus in a major trial in Guinea. Among the 5837 people who received the vaccine, no Ebola cases were recorded 10 days or more after vaccination. In comparison, there were 23 cases 10 days or more after vaccination among those who did not receive the vaccine.

A ring vaccination protocol was chosen for the trial, where some of the rings are vaccinated shortly after a case is detected, and other rings are vaccinated after a delay of 3 weeks. Prevention and control Good outbreak control relies on applying a package of interventions, namely case management, surveillance and contact tracing, a good laboratory service, safe burials and social mobilisation. Raising awareness of risk factors for Ebola infection and protective measures including vaccination that individuals can take is an effective way to reduce human transmission.

Risk reduction messaging should focus on several factors: Animals should be handled with gloves and other appropriate protective clothing. Animal products blood and meat should be thoroughly cooked before consumption. Reducing the risk of human-to-human transmission from direct or close contact with people with Ebola symptoms, particularly with their bodily fluids.

Gloves and appropriate personal protective equipment should be worn when taking care of ill patients at home.

Archives of Neuroscience

Regular hand washing is required after visiting patients in hospital, as well as after taking care of patients at home. Reducing the risk of possible sexual transmission, based on further analysis of ongoing research and consideration by the WHO Advisory Group on the Ebola Virus Disease Response, WHO recommends that male survivors of Ebola virus disease practice safe sex and hygiene for 12 months from onset of symptoms or until their semen tests negative twice for Ebola virus.

  • Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi;
  • Uganda ministry of health UMOH declared deaths of 39 persons in this outbreak in Bundibugyo district 62.

Contact with body fluids should be avoided and washing with soap and water is recommended. WHO does not recommend isolation of male or female convalescent patients whose blood has been tested negative for Ebola virus. Outbreak containment measures, including prompt and safe burial of the dead, identifying people who may have been in contact with someone infected with Ebola and monitoring their health for 21 days, the importance of separating the healthy from the sick to prevent further spread, and the importance of good hygiene and maintaining a clean environment.

Controlling infection in health-care settings Health-care workers should always take standard precautions when caring for patients, regardless of their presumed diagnosis.

These include basic hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, use of personal protective equipment to block splashes or other contact with infected materialssafe injection practices and safe burial practices. When in close contact within 1 metre of patients with EBV, health-care workers should wear face protection a face shield or a medical mask and gogglesa clean, non-sterile long-sleeved gown, and gloves sterile gloves for some procedures. Laboratory workers are also at risk.

Samples taken from humans and animals for investigation of Ebola infection should be handled by trained staff and processed in suitably equipped laboratories. WHO response WHO aims to prevent Ebola outbreaks by maintaining surveillance for Ebola virus disease and supporting at-risk countries to developed preparedness plans. The document provides overall guidance for control of Ebola and Marburg virus outbreaks: When an outbreak is detected WHO responds by supporting surveillance, community engagement, case management, laboratory services, contact tracing, infection control, logistical support and training and assistance with safe burial practices.

WHO has developed detailed advice on Ebola infection prevention and control: Chronology of previous Ebola virus disease outbreaks Year.