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The importance of water in plant growth

Water Movement in Plants

The soil gives stability to the plants; it also stores the water and nutrients which the plants can take up through their roots. The sunlight provides the energy which is necessary for plant growth Fig.

From Root to Leaf

The air allows the plants to "breath". Without water crops cannot grow.

What is the importance of water for plants ?

Too much water is not good for many crops either. Apart from paddy rice, there are only very few crops which like to grow "with their feet in the water". The most well-known source of water for plant growth is rain water.

What is the importance of water for plants ?

There are two important questions which come to mind: What to do if there is too much rain water? What to do if there is too little rain water? If there is too much rain, the soil will be full of water and there will not be enough air.

Importance of Soil Water

Excess water must be removed. The removal of excess water - either from the ground surface or from the root zone - is called drainage see Volume 1, Chapter 6. If there is too little rain, water must be supplied from other sources; irrigation is needed Fig. The amount of irrigation water which is needed depends not only on the amount of water already available from rainfall, but also on the total amount of water needed by the various crops.

  1. Semi-arid, arid and desert climates.
  2. Actually, all living things need water because life requires a LOT of chemical reactions. The active uptake of minerals by living cells of the root and the subsequent transfer of minerals to the xylem can result in positive root pressures, with water potentials above 0 MPa.
  3. To be clear, however, it is not water per se that causes damage in this case.

With respect to the need for irrigation water, a distinction can be made among three climatic situations: The amount of rainfall is sufficient to cover the water needs of the various crops. Excess water may cause problems for plant growth and thus drainage is required. Sub-humid and semi-arid climates: The amount of rainfall is important but often not sufficient to cover the water needs of the crops.

Crop production in the dry season is only possible with irrigation, while crop production in the rainy season may be possible but unreliable: Semi-arid, arid and desert climates: Reliable crop production based on rainfall is not possible; irrigation is thus essential.

  1. As with other climatic factors , water can possibly cause unfavorable effects on plant growth and development.
  2. If there is too little rain, water must be supplied from other sources; irrigation is needed Fig. In Tamil Nadu the early Chola kingdom is reported with well developed technologies for irrigation management.
  3. If people needed that much water, an adult would drink 20 gallons of water a day. The Cohesion-Tension Theory The major mechanism for long-distance water transport is described by the cohesion-tension theory, whereby the driving force of transport is transpiration, that is, the evaporation of water from the leaf surfaces.
  4. This can make the xylem cell unable to conduct water.
  5. But plant responses differ and the importance of water likewise differ depending on plant species.

The two major factors which determine the amount of irrigation water which is needed are: In Chapter 2 the crop water needs are discussed; Chapter 3 discusses the contribution from the rainfall while in Chapter 4 the determination of the irrigation water needs is explained Fig. It is then not necessary to determine the crop and irrigation water need. However, there may be situations where it is not possible to obtain these data and it would thus be necessary to determine them on the spot.

  • The amount of rainfall is important but often not sufficient to cover the water needs of the crops;
  • If people needed that much water, an adult would drink 20 gallons of water a day.

Part I of this manual allows the reader to make a rough estimation of the crop and irrigation water needs - without using any complicated calculations. Part II of this manual allows the reader actually to calculate - be it in a fairly simple manner - the crop and irrigation water needs. These calculations obviously lead to a greater accuracy, but they also require more time and background knowledge.