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The principle of optimizing criminal behavior in the world of law enforcement

November 10, 2016; Accepted Date: November 20, 2016; Published Date: November 28, 2016 Citation: Glob J Nurs Forensic Stud 1: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

View PDF Download PDF Abstract In Kenya, domestic crimes increase has not been met with adequate prevention involving Intelligence-Led Policing unlike other kind of crime such as drug trafficking and terrorism where intelligence policing has been deployed immensely. Kakamega County has recorded an increasing number of domestic crimes in the past decade Kakamega County Police Headquarters, 2014 which threatens socio-economic development in the County. The overall objective of the study was to examine the practice of intelligence led policing with a particular focus on the management of domestic crimes in Kakamega County.

The specific objectives were to: The study was guided by rational choice and social control theories. The study employed a descriptive survey design and the target population consisted of household heads, police officers, private security firms, chiefs and assistant county commissioners in Kakamega County. Purposively sampling techniques was used to select OCPD, DCIO, OCS, private security firms, assistant county commissioners, chiefs while random sampling technique was used to select junior police officers and household heads.

In the total, the sample respondents were 293. Primary data was collected through interviews, questionnaires while secondary data was collected from books, internet, journals and newspapers. Validity was determined using content validity while reliability was done using test retest method. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistic and it was presented in form of tables and charts.

The findings revealed that Intelligence-Led Policing in Kakamega County was characterized by criminal informer, targeting of criminals unlike particular crime and holistic investigation of crimes using results-oriented tactics and strategies. The study recommends that government needs to commit more resources toward Intelligence-Led Policing so that police officers can be trained, equipment and technology can be procured.

Further, there is need for police officers to come up with realistic performance indicator through the use of Intelligence-Led Policing products. Keywords Intelligence-led policing; Domestic crime; Crime management Introduction Bureau of Justice Assistance, 2005 has informed the Intelligenceled policing ILP is a policing model that is built around the assessment and management of risk.

Intelligence has been recognized as being important in policing practice. Most commonly, intelligence is seen as the information gleaned from various sources on the activities of known or suspected active criminals.

Since the 1990s several security experts have caused the study of intelligence to be viewed as originating from the United Kingdom [ 1 ]. Intelligence-led policing as a concept has gained much attention around the world in the past decade.

Although its conceptualization is similar in the various developing countries worldwide, its practice varies between countries and even within the countries [ 2 ].

Intelligence officers serve as guide to operations, rather than operations guiding intelligence.

  • Tackling future policing challenges with AI and robotics Tackling future policing challenges with AI and robotics Singapore, 12 July 2018;
  • As Maguire [ 10 ] noted that the increasing fragmentation of the community, fear and insecurity and the growth of the risk society have generated a massive requirement for increased security and knowledge;
  • The focus of ILP on domestic crimes especially in developing countries tends to be minimal and largely peripheralsed;
  • Investigations following bombings of the rail systems in Madrid and London and the arrest of suspected terrorists in Canada, Britain, and Florida suggested that intelligence collected from a variety of sources and through strengthened inter-agency cooperation may be the key to identifying suspects and successfully intervening to prevent similar attacks again [ 4 ].

It is specifically advocated by leading police associations in North America and the United Kingdom. Intelligence-led policing in the United Kingdom has been applied as a specialized police practice involving the identification and targeting of high-rate, chronic offenders and devising strategic interventions based on that intelligence [ 2 ]. Given the belief that 11th September 2011 terrorist attack and other terrorist attacks could have been prevented if not for intelligence failures.

Investigations following bombings of the rail systems in Madrid and London and the arrest of suspected terrorists in Canada, Britain, and Florida suggested that intelligence collected from a variety of sources and through strengthened inter-agency cooperation may be the key to identifying suspects and successfully intervening to prevent similar attacks again [ 4 ].

The foregoing information indicates that ILP is focused mainly on high-end society crimes involving high valued targets in society. The focus of ILP on domestic crimes especially in developing countries tends to be minimal and largely peripheralsed. Domestic crime refers to any crime committed against a family member or intimate relation, and mostly falls under the "domestic violence" category.

Unfortunately, many domestic crimes are not reported because the victim feels guilty or responsible for the act.

Domestic crimes are an issue to both law enforcement agencies and the judicial system. This type of crimes comprises usually repeat offenses, and almost always involves violence. They can involve physical, psychological, emotional or economic abuse and usually contain elements from more than one.

Domestic crimes in any situation can involve the negligent premeditated homicidekidnapping, sex crimes, theft, assault and battery, child abuse, stalking, harassment, and property destruction. All of these crimes are prosecutable by the state, and carry varying sentences according to the severity of the crime [ 2 ]. Whereas the commission of domestic crimes in Africa is rampant an elaborate intervention through ILP is still infancyhence gained manifestation of scanty data.

  1. It is specifically advocated by leading police associations in North America and the United Kingdom. They can involve physical, psychological, emotional or economic abuse and usually contain elements from more than one.
  2. He viewed the Oxbridge colleges as seats of privilege, prejudice and idleness, and his Oxford experience left him with a deep distrust of oaths and sparked a general antipathy toward the Anglican establishment , 35—
  3. Kakamega County has recorded an increasing number of domestic crimes in the past decade Kakamega County Police Headquarters, 2014 which threatens socio-economic development in the County.
  4. In the hands of criminals, these technologies can pose digital and physical threats, while at the same time these tools offer new opportunities to police in combating crime.
  5. While it is not true that everyone always acts in his or her self-interest, it is best that the legislator design institutions and law as if this were in fact true.

Instead focus is mainly on high value crimes such as terrorism, carjacking, drug trafficking and poaching. In South Africa, the 2009 annual crime data report indicated annual increase in house break-ins, robbery, carjacking and business robbery by 22.

In Kenya, there is limited data on the influence of intelligence-led policing and management of domestic crimes. Emphasis has been focused on terrorism, carjacking, drug trafficking and wildlife poaching.

Even with the introduction of Nyumba kumi community policing there is apparent lack of research interest in the relationship between Intelligence led policing and the management of domestic crimes at the county level [ 6 ]. Intelligence led policing is considered an optimal option for fighting crime. Central to Intelligence led policing is law enforcement officers partnering with the communities in terms of sharing intelligence information and responding to crimes.

The Kenya police heads, endorsed a task force report that was chaired by Retired Judge Honorable Ransley from South Africa on Kenya police reforms after the 2007 post-election violence, it recommended that Intelligence-led policing be instituted in the country to help the police to control planned crimes in the Country The standard 28th Nov 2009.

However, the increase in domestic crimes in Kenya has not been met with adequate prevention, crimes been increasing over time as a result of social change.

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Kakamega County has recorded an increasing number of crimes in the past decade [ 7 ]. Literature on intelligence led policing is basically Eurocentric. Data on intelligence-led policing is mainly from Western countries especially United States of America and Britain.

There is scanty data from Africa and especially Kenya. Further, its applicability has been focused on international terrorist, radicalization and drug trafficking leaving a significant gap on the domestic crimes that has been on increase in most urban areas in Kenya. Therefore, this study is very important because it examined the nature of intelligence-led policing in the management of domestic crimes in Kakamega country.

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Theoretical Framework This study is based on two theories namely the rational control choice and the social control theory which are much related to the study. Rational choice theory in particular, has found a place in conflict resolution and it was advanced by Nyatepe-Coo [ 8 ]. In conflict resolution, the rational choice theory adopts a belief that man is a reasoning actor who weighs means and ends, costs and benefits, and makes a rational choice.

  • Involvement of intelligence-led policing;
  • The foregoing information indicates that ILP is focused mainly on high-end society crimes involving high valued targets in society;
  • Involvement of intelligence-led policing;
  • Information gathered from the informer was vital in the management of crime in Kakamega County as indicated by OCPD from Kakamega East police division;
  • Also, the analysis underscores why money cannot be a direct measure of utility, since the utility represented by a particular sum of money will vary depending on the relative wealth of the person who receives it;
  • Suitably impressed by the progress made in this department of knowledge, Bentham carried over into moral science the basic principle that people can only know, in any certain or scientific sense of that term, that which can be observed and verified.

This method was designed by Cornish and Clarke to assist in thinking about situational crime prevention. Social control theory was developed by Travis Hirsch in 1969. It is also known as the Social Bond Theory. Under the social control theory, individuals break the law due to a breakdown with their societal bond.

Moreover, Hirsch refers to four elements which constitute the societal bond. When one of these four items break down, Hirschi hypothesizes that an individual may then participate in criminal activities.

Research Design and Methods Descriptive research design was adopted. The study area was Kakamega County comprising of Kakamega divisional police station, Matete police station, Kabras police station, Butere police station, Makunga police base, Malaika police base, Navakholo police base and Mumias police station. The study population was household heads, police officers, private security firms and administrative officials. Fifteen junior police officers and 250 household heads were sampled randomly while key informant comprising of private security firms, administrative officials and senior police officers were sampled purposively to select 28 respondents.

Instruments for data collection adopted included questionnaires, focus group discussion, and interview schedules. This research is both quantitative and qualitative and thus used quantitative and qualitative data analysis to analyze text, interviews, field notes and questionnaires. Quantitative methods of data analysis were of great value to the researcher in drawing meaningful results from a large body of qualitative data.

The main beneficial aspect is that it provides the means to separate out the large number of confounding factors that often obscure the main qualitative findings. Quantitative analytical approaches also allow the reporting of summary results in numerical terms to be given with a specified degree of confidence.

Results and Discussion Common types of crime The study sought to find out from respondents the common types of crimes in Kakamega County. Data were collected, analysed and findings summarized and presented in Figure 1. Common type of crime in the respondents' neighbourhood.

All household heads also indicated that they have only reported domestic crimes. Practice of intelligence-led policing From Figure 2, 73.

The high number of officers is a result of increase in crime in the communities within Kakamega County.

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With ineffectiveness of traditional strategy of policing, shortcoming in Community policing strategy and increase in terrorism threats, intelligence-led policing is considered surest way of combating crime in the society. As Maguire [ 10 ] noted that the increasing fragmentation of the community, fear and insecurity and the growth of the risk society have generated a massive requirement for increased security and knowledge. Thus policing benefit from an intelligence-led which over half of its officer are involved instead of working in isolation.

Conduct of intelligence-led policing. They state that intelligence-led policing cannot be done by all officers as it requires specialized skills in gathering and analysis of information in the operation environment. It is evident that intelligence-led policing on the management of domestic crimes in Kakamega County is not conducted by all officers.

  • On the one hand the standard of right and wrong, on the other the chain of causes and effects, are fastened to their throne;
  • This insight served to draw Bentham into an open engagement with parliamentary reform;
  • November 28, 2016 Citation;
  • Used with discretion and proper supervision, they represent a very cost-effective means of developing operations against crime, compared for example with the costs of deploying a full surveillance team to gather the same information [ 12 ];
  • The volume later received high praise from J;
  • The focus of ILP on domestic crimes especially in developing countries tends to be minimal and largely peripheralsed.

The very nature of its complexity in crime prevention and reduction requires sophisticated devices and expertise which limit the number of participants. Criminal informer In the use of intelligence-led policing to manage crime, the use of criminal informer is vital tool though in some cases, the life of informer may be in danger or the informer may double cross the police putting the life of officers at risk of gang member through falsify information.

The study sought to find out the presence of criminal informer in Kakamega County as nature and applicability of intelligence-led policing in the county.

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The findings revealed that 81. However, none of the respondents disagree that criminal informers is a central tenet of an intelligence-driven policing strategy. The effective use of informants is one area that has received much attention, with forces encouraged to concentrate on recruiting and tasking them in greater numbers.

Used with discretion and proper supervision, they represent a very cost-effective means of developing operations against crime, compared for example with the costs of deploying a full surveillance team to gather the same information [ 12 ]. This suggested that intelligence-led policing cannot and would not be effective without criminal informer in the mix. In many cases confidential informants are themselves engaged in criminal activities which enable them to provide valuable direct evidence of criminal activities by their criminal associates.

Information gathered from the informer was vital in the management of crime in Kakamega County as indicated by OCPD from Kakamega East police division. These informants are typically motivated to provide information to the authorities in exchange for money or lenient treatment regarding charges pending against them or likely to be brought against them.

However, there are high risks associated with the use of informants. Sometimes, informants do not fully disclose their own criminal activities, or they falsely implicate their enemies in crimes, or they engage in unauthorized criminal activities.

On balance, however, experience teaches us that as a general rule, the benefits from the use of informants greatly outweigh the risks [ 13 ].