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The reel industry the precursor to modern day movie industry

AMPAS Fan magazine writers liked to point out exceptions to the rule that creative teams were husband-wife teams. A rare photograph of mother Sarah Y.

How Women Worked in the US Silent Film Industry

Masonwho worked with Victor Heerman as a husband-wife writing team, plays on her double role dexterity. Also unusual is this image of parents and children not featured as a performing family.

Sometimes atypical units were featured in fan magazine articles as when the home life of Cleo Madison was filled in with a mother and the invalid sister she supported. A woman was single because she was divorced as Madison or in between husbands or lovers. She was single even if, especially if, she was in an established lesbian relationship like Dorothy Arzner and her partner Marion Morgan or writer Zoe Akins and actress Jobyna Howland.

What we want to know most of all the reel industry the precursor to modern day movie industry what went on inside the homes of Hollywood celebrities and their friends. We can infer from the great number of exterior photographs of motion picture celebrity homes that fan magazines tantalized readers with these images.

Photoplay made the connection between these exteriors and the domestic comfort of their interiors in a 1917 article. To score a photograph of Alla Nazimova standing outside her mansion in jodhpurs would have been a coup. Then again, the number of willing subjects reminds us of how many not only understood the motion picture advertising value of signs of wealth but also its diversionary function.

Mabel Normand outside her home sitting in her chauffeur-driven limousine belies a life of scandal and chronic illness. The diversion of the home also promoted diversion itself as an ideal. Here, the aura of work-as-play enveloped writers as well as players. Highly paid Famous Players-Lasky scenario writer Beulah Marie Dix walking her dachshund in front of her luxurious Southern California stucco residence reassures readers that her work is not exactly work.

One angle on the story about Dix and a rationale for taking interior publicity photographsmight have been that she worked from home. NYPL Male-female working partnerships raise the difficult question as to whether the female contribution was submerged or whether joint authorship had its own assumed standard. Collaboration was the norm in the first decade at the start of which all creative workers were uncredited.

A new direction for Indian cinema?

One early film historian would thus describe the development of the motion picture industry as moving from anonymous production to screen credit Jacobs 1975, 121.

Credits were not advertised in trade papers until in 1911 when the Edison Company published relatively complete cast lists actors, directors, authors and around the same time a few companies placed cast credits in titles, as Bowser determined from examining surviving motion picture film prints Bowser 1990, 118.

Ida May Park espoused both positions at different times in her career Denton 49; Park 335—37. Many have noted the apparent inconsistency between public statements and the responsibilities these women undertook, most notably directing, producing, and executive managing, and Lant reminds us to consider the historical moment in which these statements are made 562.

Here we also emphasize the conditions under which women worked. For instance, the months in which Lillian Gishin the absence of D. Griffith, acted as supervisor of the Mamaroneck, New York, studio, she also directed her only motion picture, the feature Remodelling Her Husband 1920.

  1. It was given its first commercial demonstration on Dec. Richard Koszarski provides the information that the studio, the former Flagler estate, was under construction and the cameraman Gish relied upon was suffering from World War I shell shock 2008, 17.
  2. As the kinetoscope gained popularity, the Edison Company began installing machines in hotel lobbies, amusement parks, and penny arcades, and soon kinetoscope parlors—where customers could pay around 25 cents for admission to a bank of machines—had opened around the country.
  3. We come from a country of Satyajit Ray, who really took cinema to another height. The MPPC was a trade group that pooled the most significant motion picture patents and established an exclusive contract between these companies and the Eastman Kodak Company as a supplier of film stock.
  4. They also often reflect the darker side of contemporary American life with their violence and portrayal of cultural anxieties. Consider the following questions.

Richard Koszarski provides the information that the studio, the former Flagler estate, was under construction and the cameraman Gish relied upon was suffering from World War I shell shock 2008, 17. The findings here indicate no perfect correspondence between directing or writing jobs and identification with feminism or even espousal of equality for women. Johnsand at least one first associated with and then disassociated herself from feminism Olga Petrova. DeMille, and in her own right a powerful New York theatrical agent who became a scenario writer: I think it has come to stay.

Every relation between the sexes has changed. Hereafter, no woman is going to get married without feeling that she is getting as much as she gives.

This may sound… crude… but it expresses pretty clearly what I mean…. Consider as well the power of retrospective recollection in memoirs and later interviews to make claims as well as to issue disclaimers. Charlie Chaplin notoriously credited himself as director on Keystone Company films on which Mabel Normand was assigned as director. Although the scenarios were always read to me for approval, it was quite possible for a director to change them out of all recognition as we went along.

Members of the supporting cast rarely knew more of the piece than the episodes in which they appeared.

Psychology Against Silence

These scenes were outlined by the director, but for the most part he left the dialogue to the imagination of the performer. As it was considered very amusing by some artists to try to break one another up, the dialogue, during the actual photographing of the scene, had very often nothing in common with the action. Very early in Mr. This of course wasted considerable film, for we had to start all over again.

Usually after the first day or so of the filming of a story, Mr. K would discard the script and outline the scenes from memory. I remember very well one scene going something like this: You register great joy at the coming of the little stranger.

You press it to your heart. You break the seal. You read it once. You read it again. You drop all of a heap, the letter clutched in your hand. We count five again.

  • This is a derivative of Understanding Media and Culture;
  • Black jazz was much more gritty and more purely "jazz" with trumpets and saxophones.

You look around you. You drag yourself on your hands and knees to the couch, and you throw yourself face down on… shoulders… sobs. Nothing matters no more. Suddenly you hear a sound. With a lascivious smile on his lips he comes toward you. You sacrificing yourself, doing your own housework, wearing mangy old duds, never going anywheres, just so he could build up his business. You can have beautiful clothes.

You can have maids to wait on you. You can have a fine house, not a dump like you got now. You can have diamonds and yachts, and travel. He gets his arms around you. You try to push him off of you. You struggle to your feet. Your hair gets all loose and falls over your shoulders. Your kimono tears open at the throat.

You try to pull it together, but no use. As you struggle and struggle it gets ripped all the way down. At last he overpowers you. K had worked himself into a very interesting state of emotion.

History of the motion picture

He was, as was once said of Mr. If the first or second rehearsal pleased her, even though a player might intentionally or not alter her instructions, as long as they did not hurt the scene, even possibly improve it, she would allow this to pass. If not she would rehearse and rehearse until they did before calling camera.

  1. Your hair gets all loose and falls over your shoulders. She hyphenated her first and last names as the Fern-Andra Company, begun in 1915.
  2. It would be a proud moment to say that the films we want to tell are being told really by us, by Indians. Such a device was created by French-born inventor Louis Le Prince in the late 1880s.
  3. Balcanasu, Andrei Ionut, Sergey V. Contemporary audiences, however, were conditioned by lantern slide projections and even comic strips; they understood a sequence of motion-picture shots to be a series of individual moving photographs, each of which was self-contained within its frame.

When she had cause to correct a player, she would do this courteously, and in my case, which was more than often, she might resort to her native tongue. This gentle gesture touched me deeply, softened any embarrassment I might feel. After all the scenes were set for the day had been shot, the close-ups followed….

  • Actresses left Biograph, Kalem, and Vitagraph, the companies that had promoted them to stardom;
  • In 1933, the original King Kong was released with Max Steiner's original score meaning "written music";
  • She found it hard to get backers;
  • You can have a fine house, not a dump like you got now;
  • In 1933, the original King Kong was released with Max Steiner's original score meaning "written music".

These concluded, Madama looked, and was, tired. But during rehearsals and shooting she never lost her dignity or poise. If, after they achieved fame, they chafed against creative constraints, how did they manage to break away and start up one business after another?

When Were Motion Pictures Silent?

In this regard, Marion Leonard may be as historically significant as Florence Lawrenceso often cited as the first motion picture star. In 1911, Leonard and her director husband, Stanner E.

After Olcott and Gauntier, along with her husband Jack C. Clark left the Kalem Company, they operated as Gene Gauntier Feature Players Company, an independent company, between 1912 and around 1915. For some, as was the case with the Kalem Company, distribution to exhibiting theatres was guaranteed by the Motion Picture Patents Company cartel.

Later, beginning in 1915, larger companies began to buy up their own theatres, a means of insuring exhibition. Independent companies, however, had to contract with separate distributing or releasing companies, sometimes at their peril. Producer-writer-director Nell Shipman recalled in her autobiography that she had been tricked into taking too low a percentage on the distribution deal that she struck with American Releasing Corporation for The Grub-Stake 1922.

As a consequence, she lost money when she should have been the one to profit 114—115. In the US, companies formed pre-World War I, 1910—1915, were coincident with the foundation of the first moving picture businesses, the transition from one- and two-reel to multireel films from shorts to features. Post-World War I company foundation corresponded with the American rise to world film industry dominance made easier by weakened French, German, Italian, and British motion picture businesses.

Actresses left Biograph, Kalem, and Vitagraph, the companies that had promoted them to stardom. One might have thought that US women, replacing men drafted into the armed forces in World War I, would thus get a foot in the door in the film industry. While women did not replace men in the US, they did in the German film industry, where even an American, a circus performer from Watseka, Illinois, seized the opportunity.

She hyphenated her first and last names as the Fern-Andra Company, begun in 1915.