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The school system and the social paradigms of structural function social conflict and symbolic inter

Bookmark Glossary Absolute poverty The condition of having too little income to buy the necessities-- food, shelter, clothing, health care. Achieved status A social position status obtained through an individual's own talents and efforts. Affirmative action The requirement that employers make special efforts to recruits hire and promote qualified members of previously excluded groups including women and minorities. Aggregate A collection of unrelated people who do not know one another but who may occupy a common space--for example, a crowd of people crossing a city street.

Agrarian societies Societies in which large the school system and the social paradigms of structural function social conflict and symbolic inter cultivation using plows and draft animals is the primary means of subsistence. Alienation The separation or estrangement of individuals from themselves and from others. Amalgamation The biological as well as cultural assimilation merging of racial or ethnic groups.

Anomalies In science observations or problems that cannot be explained or solved in terms of a prevailing paradigm. Anomie A breakdown or confusion in the norms, values, and culture of a group or a society.

A condition of relative normlessness. Anomie theory The theory suggesting that deviance and crime occur when there is an acute gap between cultural norms and goals and the socially structured opportunities for individuals to achieve those goals.

Anticipatory socialization The process of taking on the attitudes values and behaviors of a status or role one expects to occupy in the future. Apartheid The recent policy of racial separation in South Africa enforced by legal political and military power.

Ascribed status A social position status such as sex, race, and social class that a person acquires at birth. Assimilation The merging of minority and majority groups into one group with a come mon culture and identity. Association A group of people bound together by common goals and rules, but not necessarily by close personal ties. Athletics A form of sport that is closer to work than to play. Authority Power regarded as legitimate.

Autocracy Rule or government concentrated in a single ruler or group of leaders who are willing to use force to maintain control. Baby boom The people who were born in the United States between and This group represented a sharp increase in birth rates and in the absolute number of births compared to pre levels. Bias The influence of a scientist's personal values and attitudes on scientific observations and conclusions.

Bicultural The capacity to understand and function well in more than one cultural group. Birth rate Number of births per year per women 15 to 44 years old. Bureaucracy A large-scale formal organization with centralized authority, a hierarchical chain of command, explicit rules and procedures, and an emphasis on formal positions rather than on persons. Calling The idea in certain branches of ascetic Protestantism that one can live acceptably to God by fulfilling the obligations imposed by one's secular position in the world.

Capitalism A form of economic organization in which private individuals accumulate and invest capital, own the means of production, and control profits. Caste system A closed system of social stratification in which prestige and social relationships are based on hereditary position at birth.

Centrally planned economy An economic system that includes public ownership of or control over all productive resources and whose activity is planned by the government. Charisma The exceptional mystical or even supernatural quality of personality attributed to a person by others.

Literally, "the gift of grace. Charter The capacity of certain schools to confer special rights on their graduates. Church A formally organized, institutionalized religious organization with formal and traditional religious doctrine, beliefs, and practices. City A relatively permanent settlement of large numbers of people who do not grow or gather their own food. Civil law The branch of law that deals largely with wrongs against the individual. Civil religion The interweaving of religious and political symbols in public life.

Class conflict The struggle between competing classes, specifically between the class that owns the means of production and the class or classes that do not. Class consciousness The sense of common class position and shared interests held by members of a social class.

Class system A system of stratification based primarily on the unequal ownership and control of economic resources. Closed system In organizational theory, the degree to which an organization is shut off from its environment. Coercion A form of social interaction in which one is made to do something through the use of social pressure, threats, or force.

Cognitive development The systematic improvement of intellectual ability through a series of stages. Cognitive development theory Suggests that individuals try to pattern their lives and experiences to form a reasonably consistent picture of their beliefs, actions, and values. Cohort Persons who share something in common, usually being born in the same year or time period.

  • Erving Goffman , the person most often credited with formally developing impression management theory, cast the idea in a dramaturgical framework;
  • Subculture A distinguishable group that shares a number of features with the dominant culture within which it exists while also having unique features such as language, customs, or values;
  • Cognitive development theory Suggests that individuals try to pattern their lives and experiences to form a reasonably consistent picture of their beliefs, actions, and values.

Commitment Willingness of members of a group to do what is needed to maintain the group. Community A collection of people in a geographical area; may also include the idea that the collection has a social structure and a sense of community spirit or belonging. Comparable worth A policy of equal pay for men and women doing similar work, even if the jobs are labeled differently by sex.

Competition A goal-directed form of social interaction in which the goals or objects pursued are limited, so not all competitors can attain them. Competitive behavior is governed by rules and limitations restraints. Complementary marriages Marriages in which husband and wife take distinctly separate family roles. Concentric-zone theory A theory of urban development holding that cities grow around a central business district in concentric zones, with each zone devoted to a different land use.

Concept A formal definition of what is being studied. Conflict A form of social interaction involving direct struggle between individuals or groups over commonly valued resources or goals. Differs from competition because individuals are more interested in defeating an opponent than in achieving a goal. Conflict approach One of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology: Weberian conflict theorists stress inequality and conflict based on class, status, power; Marxian theorists emphasize conflict and inequality based on ownership of the means of production.

Conformity Going along with the norms or behaviors of a group. Conjugal family A form of family organization centered around the husband-wife relationship rather than around blood relationships. There were 21 such cities in the United States in Contact hypothesis The theory that people of different racial groups who became acquainted would be less prejudiced toward one another.

  • If we break a bone in one of our legs, we have trouble walking; if we lose sight in both our eyes, we can no longer see;
  • Whereas conservative intellectuals feared the mass violence resulting from industrialization, Marx and Engels deplored the conditions they felt were responsible for the mass violence and the capitalist society they felt was responsible for these conditions;
  • Induction Reasoning from the particular to the general.

Contagion theory Le Bon's theory that the anonymity people feel in a crowd makes them susceptible to the suggestions of fanatical leaders, and that emotions can sweep through such a crowd like a virus. Content analysis A research method used to describe and analyze in an objective and systematic way the content of literature, speeches, or other media presentations. The method helps to identify cultural themes or trends. Content of socialization The ideas, beliefs, values, knowledge, and so forth that are presented to people who are being socialized.

Contest mobility The educational pattern in which selection for academic and university education is delayed and children compete throughout their schooling for high positions.

Context of socialization The setting or arena within which socialization occurs. Continued subjugation The use of force and ideology by one group to retain domination over another group.

Introduction to Sociology/Sociological Theory

Control group A group that is not exposed to the independent variable of interest to a researcher but whose members' backgrounds and experience are otherwise like those of the experimental group that is exposed to the independent variable. Controlling for In research, the effort to hold constant factors that might be influencing observed changes in the dependent variable.

Convergence theory A theory suggesting that modernizing nations come to resemble one another over time. In collective behavior, a theory suggesting that certain crowds attract particular types of people, who may behave irrationally. Cooperation A form of social interaction involving collaborative effort among people to achieve a common goal.

The Sociological Imagination

Cooptation A social process by which people who might otherwise threaten the stability or existence of an organization are brought into the leadership or policy-making structure of that organization. Correlation An observed association between a change in the value of one variable and a change in the value of another variable. Counterculture A subculture whose norms and values sharply contradict the dominant norms and values of the society in which it occurs.

Creationism A theory that sees all major types of living things, including people, as having been made by the direct creative action of God in six days.

Credential The educational degree or certificate used to determine a person's eligibility for a position. Crime A behavior prohibited by law. Criminal law Law enacted by recognized political authorities that prohibits or requires certain behaviors.

Criteria for inferring causality Evidence that two variables are correlated and that the hypothesized cause preceded the hypothesized effect in time, as well as evidence eliminating rival hypotheses. Crude birth rate The total number of live births per persons in a population within a particular year. Crude death rate The number of deaths per persons occurring within a one-year period in a particular population.

Cult An organized group of people who together act out religious feelings, attitudes, and relationships; may focus on an unusual form of worship or belief. Cultural capital Symbolic wealth socially defined as worthy of being sought and possessed. Cultural change Modifications or transformations of a culture's customs, values, ideas, or artifacts. Cultural determinism The view that the nature of a society is shaped primarily by the ideas and values of the people living in it.

Cultural division of labor A situation in which a person's place in the occupational world is determined by his or her cultural markers such as ethnicity. Cultural imposition The forcing of members of one culture to adopt the practices of another culture.

Cultural relativism The view that the customs and ideas of a society must be viewed within the context of that society. Cultural revolution The repudiation of many existing cultural elements and the substitution of new ones.

Cultural universals Cultural features, such as the use of language, shared by all human societies. Culture The common heritage shared by the people of a society, consisting of customs, values, language, ideas, and artifacts.

Culture lag The time difference between the introduction of material innovations and resulting changes in cultural practices. Culture of poverty A distinctive culture thought to develop among poor people and characterized by failure to delay gratification, fatalism, and weak family and community ties.

Culture pattern theory In the sociology of sport, a theory that explains aggression and violence in sport as learned behavior that mirrors the degree of aggression and violence in the society.

Cyclical theories Theories of social change suggesting that societies follow a certain life course, from vigorous and innovative youth to more materialistic maturity and then to decline.

  • Sect An exclusive, highly cohesive group of ascetic religious believers;
  • Socioeconomic status SES An index of social status that considers a person's occupation, education, and income as measures of social status;
  • Explanatory study A research study with the goal of explaining how or why things happen the way they do in the social world;
  • Strategic interpersonal behavior to shape or influence impressions formed by an audience is not a new idea;
  • This group represented a sharp increase in birth rates and in the absolute number of births compared to pre levels.

Deduction Reasoning from the general to the specific. Defining the situation The socially created perspective that people apply to a situation. Democracy A form of political organization in which power resides with the people and is exercised by them.