Essays academic service


What does not need to be cited in a research paper

The five basic principles described below apply to all disciplines and should guide your own citation practice. Even more fundamental, however, is this general rule: Any verbatim use of a source, no matter how large or small the quotation, must be placed in quotation marks or, if longer than three lines, clearly indented beyond the regular margin.

The quotation must be accompanied, either within the text or in a footnote, by a precise indication of the source, identifying the author, title, what does not need to be cited in a research paper and date of publication where relevantand page numbers. Even if you use only a short phrase, or even one key word, you must use quotation marks in order to set off the borrowed language from your own, and you must cite the source.

A paraphrase is normally about the same length as the original. Paraphrasing does not relieve you of the responsibility to cite your source. Taking good notes while doing your research will help you keep straight which ideas belong to which author. Facts, Information, and Data. If the information is found exclusively in a particular source, you must clearly acknowledge that source.

For example, if you use data from a scientific experiment conducted and reported by a researcher, you must cite your source, probably a scientific journal or a website. Or if you use a piece of information discovered by another scholar in the course of their own research, you must cite your source.

Note that facts are different from ideas: Your best course of action in such a case may be to cite the most credible or authoritative of the multiple sources. Occasionally, especially in a longer research paper, you may not be able to include all of the information or ideas from your research in the body of your own paper. In such cases, insert a note offering supplementary information rather than simply providing basic bibliographic information author, title, place and date of publication, and page numbers.

In such footnotes or endnotes, you might provide additional data to bolster your argument, or briefly present an alternative idea that you found in one of your sources, or even list two or three additional articles on some topic that your reader might find of interest.

Such notes demonstrate the breadth and depth of your research, and permit you to include germane, but not essential, information or concepts without interrupting the flow of your own paper. Additional claims or analysis of your own that you want to include in your essay without distracting readers from the central line of argument may also appear in footnote form.

What you don't need to cite

In these cases, the footnote will not include a citation because the ideas or findings presented belong to you. In all of the cases above, the standards of academic integrity require both citing the source in the text of your essay and its incorporation into your bibliography.

Failure to provide that citation may result in being charged with plagiarism. Here there would be no need to cite 1984 directly, but it would be appropriate to list it in your bibliography.

Citing Your Sources

Students who have done their college preparation at schools in other countries may have learned research and paper-writing practices different from those at Princeton. For example, students from schools in East Asia may learn that copying directly from sources, without citation, is the proper way to write papers and do research. Students in France, preparing for the Baccalaureate examination, may be encouraged to memorize whole passages from secondary sources and copy them into papers and exam essays.

Those cultural differences can sometimes lead to false assumptions about citation practices and expectations at Princeton. To make an appointment, visit www.

When to Cite Sources