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Writing the discussion on a research paper

Why is your research important?

How to Write Your First Research Paper

What is known about the topic? What are your hypotheses? What are your objectives? Materials and Methods 1. What materials did you use? Who were the subjects of your study? What was the design of your research? What procedure did you follow? What are your most significant results? What are your supporting results?

Writing a Research Paper Series: Discussion

Discussion and Conclusions 1. What are the studies major findings? Open in a separate window Now that you have expanded your outline, you are ready for the next step: Getting feedback during early stages of your draft can save a lot of time. Talking through ideas allows people to conceptualize and organize thoughts to find their direction without wasting time on unnecessary writing.

Outlining is the most effective way of communicating your ideas and exchanging thoughts. Moreover, it is also the best stage to decide writing the discussion on a research paper which publication you will submit the paper. Many people come up with three choices and discuss them with their mentors and colleagues.

Having a list of journal priorities can help you quickly resubmit your paper if your paper is rejected. Create a detailed outline and discuss it with your mentor and peers. Continue with drafts After you get enough feedback and decide on the journal you will submit to, the process of real writing begins.

Copy your outline into a separate file and expand on each of the points, adding data and elaborating on the details. When you create the first draft, do not succumb to the temptation of editing. Do not slow down to choose a better word or better phrase; writing the discussion on a research paper not halt to improve your sentence structure.

Pour your ideas into the paper and leave revision and editing for later. Staring at an empty screen is frustrating, but your screen is not really empty: You have a template of your article, and all you need to do is fill in the blanks. When scientists start writing a research paper, they already have their files with data, lab notes with materials and experimental designs, some visuals, and tables with results.

All they need to do is scrutinize these pieces and put them together into a comprehensive paper. Starting with Materials and Methods If you still struggle with starting a paper, then write the Materials and Methods section first. Since you have all your notes, it should not be problematic for you to describe the experimental design and procedures. Your most important goal in this section is to be as explicit as possible by providing enough detail and references.

In the end, the purpose of this section is to allow other researchers to evaluate and repeat your work. So do not run into the same problems as the writers of the sentences in 1: Bacteria were pelleted by centrifugation.

To isolate T cells, lymph nodes were collected. As you can see, crucial pieces of information are missing: The sentences can be improved when information is added, as in 2a and 2brespectfully: If your method has previously been published and is well-known, then you should provide only the literature reference, as in 3a.

If your method is unpublished, then you need to make sure you provide all essential details, as in 3b. Stem cells were isolated, according to Johnson [23]. Stem cells were isolated using biotinylated carbon nanotubes coated with anti-CD34 antibodies.

Furthermore, cohesion and fluency are crucial in this section. One writing the discussion on a research paper the malpractices resulting in disrupted fluency is switching from passive voice to active and vice versa within the same paragraph, as shown in 4.

This switching misleads and distracts the reader. Behavioral computer-based experiments of Study 1 were programmed by using E-Prime. We took ratings of enjoyment, mood, and arousal as the patients listened to preferred pleasant music and unpreferred music by using Visual Analogue Scales SI Methods.

The preferred and unpreferred status of the music was operationalized along a continuum of pleasantness [ 4 ]. This switch causes confusion about the performer of the actions in the first and the third sentences. To improve the coherence and fluency of the paragraph above, you should be consistent in choosing the point of view: We programmed behavioral computer-based experiments of Study 1 by using E-Prime. We took ratings of enjoyment, mood, and arousal by using Visual Analogue Scales SI Methods as the patients listened to preferred pleasant music and unpreferred music.

We operationalized the preferred and unpreferred status of the music along a continuum of pleasantness. Ratings of enjoyment, mood, and arousal were taken as the patients listened to preferred pleasant music and unpreferred music by using Visual Analogue Scales SI Methods.

The preferred and unpreferred status of the music was operationalized along a continuum of pleasantness.

  1. Use the advice of Paul Silvia.
  2. Another problem is that writers understate the significance of the Introduction. In the Introduction, you zoom in from general to specific and from the background to your research question; in the Discussion section, you zoom out from the summary of your findings to the research context, as shown in Table 4.
  3. Therefore, you should be explicit and clear in describing the benefit of the paper. Focus on experimental results and other findings that are especially relevant to your research questions and objectives and include them even if they are unexpected or do not support your ideas and hypotheses.
  4. The purpose of the discussion is to review the study findings in light of the published literature and draw conclusions from the data. Use tables and figures as a focal point to tell a clear and informative story about your research and avoid repeating information.
  5. Use tables and figures as a focal point to tell a clear and informative story about your research and avoid repeating information.

Interestingly, recent studies have reported that the Materials and Methods section is the only section in research papers in which passive voice predominantly overrides the use of the active voice [ 5789 ].

This means that while all other sections of the research paper use active voice, passive voice is still the most predominant in Materials and Methods sections. Writing Materials and Methods sections is a meticulous and time consuming task requiring extreme accuracy and clarity. This is why when you complete your draft, you should ask for as much feedback from your colleagues as possible.

Numerous readers of this section will help you identify the missing links and improve the technical style of this section. Be meticulous and accurate in describing the Materials and Methods. Do not change the point of view within one paragraph. Writing Results Section For many authors, writing the Results section is more intimidating than writing the Materials and Methods section. If people are interested in your paper, they are interested in your results.

That is why it is vital to use all your writing skills to objectively present your key findings in an orderly and logical sequence using illustrative materials and text. Your Results should be organized into different segments or subsections where each one presents the purpose of the experiment, your experimental approach, data including text and visuals tables, figures, schematics, algorithms, and formulasand data commentary.

For most journals, your data commentary will include a meaningful summary of the data presented in the visuals and an explanation of the most significant findings. This data presentation should not repeat the data in the visuals, but rather highlight the most important points. However, interpretations gradually and secretly creep into research papers: Another important aspect of this section is to create a comprehensive and supported argument or a well-researched case.

This means that writing the discussion on a research paper should be selective in presenting data and choose only those experimental details that are essential for your reader to understand your findings. You might have conducted an experiment 20 times and collected numerous records, but this does not mean that you should present all those records in your paper.

You need to distinguish your results from your data and be able to discard excessive experimental details that could distract and confuse the reader. However, creating a picture or an argument should not be confused with data manipulation or falsification, which is a willful distortion of data and results. If some of your findings contradict your ideas, you have to mention this and find a plausible explanation for the contradiction.

In addition, your text should not include irrelevant and peripheral information, including overview sentences, as in 6. To show our results, we first introduce all components of experimental system and then describe the outcome of infections. Indeed, wordiness convolutes your sentences and conceals your ideas from readers.

One common source of wordiness is unnecessary intensifiers.

Table 3 clearly shows that … 7b. It is obvious from figure 4 that … Another source of wordiness is nominalizations, i. We tested the hypothesis that there is a disruption of membrane asymmetry. In this paper we provide an argument that stem cells repopulate injured organs. To improve your sentences, avoid unnecessary nominalizations and change passive verbs and constructions into active and direct sentences.

We tested the hypothesis that the membrane asymmetry is disrupted. In this paper we argue that stem cells repopulate injured organs. Your Results section is the heart of your paper, representing a year or more of your daily research. So lead your reader through your story by writing direct, concise, and clear sentences. Be clear, concise, and objective in describing your Results. While describing your Methods and Results, many of you diverged from the original outline and re-focused your ideas.

So before you move on to create your Introduction, re-read your Methods and Results sections and change your outline to match your research focus. The updated outline will help you review the general picture of your paper, the topic, the main idea, and the purpose, which are all important for writing your introduction.

The best way to structure your introduction is to follow the three-move approach shown in Table 3. Establish a research territory a. Show that the general research area is important, central, interesting, and problematic in some writing the discussion on a research paper Move 2.

Academic Phrases for Writing Results & Discussion Sections of a Research Paper

Find a niche a. Indicate a gap in the previous research, or extend previous knowledge in some way. Occupy the niche a.