Essays academic service


A biography of john edgar hoover the director of the federal bureau of investigation

  • Johnson waived the then-mandatory U;
  • These actions reflected the biases and prejudices of the country at large, especially in the attempts to prevent Martin Luther King, Jr;
  • A raid on a summer lodge in Little Bohemia, Wisconsin, left an agent and a hapless civilian bystander dead along with others wounded;
  • Hoover was, and still is, one of the most widely known public officials of all time.

Melvin Purvis was a prime example; he was one of the more effective agents in capturing and breaking up 1930s gangs and received substantial public recognition, but a jealous Hoover maneuvered him out of the FBI. Few details are known of his early years; his birth certificate was not filed until 1938. What little is known about his upbringing generally can be traced back to a single 1937 profile by journalist Jack Alexander. Hoover was educated at George Washington University, graduating in 1917, with a law degree.

Postal Inspector who waged prolonged campaigns against fraud and vice as well as pornography and information on birth control a generation earlier. He is thought to have studied Comstock's methods and modeled his early career on Comstock's reputation for relentless pursuit and occasional procedural violations in crime fighting.

He soon proved himself capable and was promoted to head of the Enemy Aliens Registration Section. From there, in 1921, he joined the Bureau of Investigation as deputy head, and in 1924, the Attorney General made him the acting director.

Burns was involved in the financial scandal s of the Harding administration. Director of the F. When Hoover took over the Bureau of Investigation, it had approximately 650 employees, including 441 Special Agents.

In the early thirties, there was an epidemic of bank robberies in the Midwest orchestrated by colorful sociopaths who took advantage of superior fire power and fast get away cars to bedevil local law enforcement agencies. To the chagrin and increasing discomfort of authorities, these robbers were often viewed as somewhat noble in their assaults upon the banking industry which at the time was actively involved in evicting farmers from their homesteads. This sense of empathy reached the point that many of these desperados, particularly the dashing John Dillinger who became famous for leaping over bank cages and his repeated escapes from jails and police trapswere de facto folk heroes whose exploits frequently captured headlines.

State officials began to implore Washington to aid them in containing this lawlessness. The fact that the robbers frequently took stolen cars across state lines a federal offense gave Hoover and his men the green light to pursue them.

Things did not go as planned, however, and there were some embarrassing foul ups on the part of the FBI, particularly in regards to clashes with the Dillinger gang actually led by "Handsome" Harry Pierpont. A raid on a summer lodge in Little Bohemia, Wisconsin, left an agent and a hapless civilian bystander dead along with others wounded.

All the gangsters escaped. Hoover realized that his job was now on the line and he pulled out all stops to bring his targets to bay.

Special killing squads were set up in Chicago with the expressed purpose of exterminating these "public enemies. This paid off when the gangster was cut down in a hail of gunfire outside the Biograph theater. Increased mandate Because of several other highly-publicized captures or shootings of outlaws and bank robbers like Dillinger, Alvin Karpis, and Machine Gun Kelly, the Bureau's powers were broadened and it was renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935.

In 1939, the FBI became preeminent in the field of domestic intelligence. Hoover made changes such as expanding and combining fingerprint files in the Identification Division to compile the largest collection of a biography of john edgar hoover the director of the federal bureau of investigation ever made. Hoover and internal security: The red threat Hoover was noted for his concern about subversion usually associated with the "red threat," that is, fear of Communist infiltration.

Under his leadership, the FBI spied upon tens of thousands of suspected subversives and radicals. Hoover tended to exaggerate the dangers of subversives, and many believe he overstepped his bounds in his pursuit of eliminating this perceived threat.

The members of these teams were apprehended due, in part, to the increased vigilance and intelligence gathering efforts of the FBI, but chiefly because one of the would-be saboteurs, who had spent many years as an American resident, decided to surrender himself to the authorities, leading to the apprehension of the other saboteurs still at large.

Another example of Hoover's concern over subversion is his handling of the Venona Project. Hoover kept the intercepts—America's greatest counterintelligence secret—in a locked safe in his office, choosing not to inform Truman, his Attorney General McGraith or two Secretaries of State— Dean Acheson and General George Marshall —while they held office.

In 1956, Hoover was becoming increasingly frustrated by Supreme Court decisions that limited the Justice Department's ability to prosecute Communists. Its methods included infiltration, burglaries, illegal wiretaps, planting forged documents, and spreading false rumors about key members of target organizations.

Hoover amassed significant power by collecting files containing large amounts of compromising and potentially embarrassing information on many powerful people, especially politicians.

J. Edgar Hoover

Kelley thought such files either did not exist or had been destroyed. After The Washington Post broke a story in January 1975, Kelley searched and found them in his outer office. The House Judiciary Committee then demanded that Silberman testify about them.

An extensive investigation of Hoover's files by David Garrow showed that Hoover and next-in-command William Sullivan, as well as the FBI itself as an agency, was responsible.

These actions reflected the biases and prejudices of the country at large, especially in the attempts to prevent Martin Luther King, Jr. Howard, a civil rights leader from Mound Bayou, Mississippi.

During a national speaking tour, Howard had criticized the FBI's failure to thoroughly investigate the racially-motivated murders of George W. Lee, Lamar Smith, and Emmett Till. Hoover not only wrote an open letter to the press singling out these statements as "irresponsible" but secretly enlisted the help of NAACP attorney Thurgood Marshall in a campaign to discredit Howard.

Hoover and the fight against organized crime In the 1950s, evidence of Hoover's unwillingness to focus FBI resources on the Mafia became grist for the media and his many detractors, after famed muckraker Jack Anderson exposed the immense scope of the Mafia's organized crime network, a threat Hoover had long downplayed.

Hoover's retaliation and continual harassment of Anderson lasted into the 1970s. Hoover has also been accused of trying to undermine the reputations of members of the civil rights movement. The report also criticized what it characterized as the FBI's reluctance to thoroughly investigate the possibility of a conspiracy to assassinate the president.

Kennedy, and Lyndon Johnson each considered firing Hoover but concluded that the political cost of doing so would be too great. Richard Nixon twice called in Hoover with the intent of firing him, but both times he changed his mind when meeting with Hoover.

Hoover maintained strong support in Congress until his death, whereupon operational command of the Bureau passed to Associate Director Clyde Tolson. Soon thereafter, Nixon appointed L.

  • Many of these criminals frequently made newspaper headlines across the United States, particularly John Dillinger, who became famous for leaping over bank cages, and repeatedly escaping from jails and police traps;
  • As a historical note, Felt was revealed, in 2005, to have been the legendary "Deep Throat" during the Watergate scandal;
  • Edgar Hoover—Passing for White?

Mark Felt remaining as Associate Director. As a historical note, Felt was revealed, in 2005, to have been the legendary "Deep Throat" during the Watergate scandal. Some of the people whom Deep Throat's revelations helped put in prison—such as Nixon's chief counsel Chuck Colson and G. Gordon Liddy—contend that this was, at least in part, because Felt was passed over by Nixon as head of the FBI after Hoover's death in 1972. Hoover personally made sure Warner Bros.

Edgar Hoover and his assistant Clyde Tolson sitting in beach lounge chairs, circa 1939 For decades, there has been speculation and rumors that Hoover was homosexual, but no concrete evidence of these claims has ever been presented. Such rumors have circulated since at least the early 1940s. The two men were almost constantly together, working, vacationing, and having lunch and dinner together almost every weekday. The Secret Life of J Edgar Hoover, Anthony Summers quoted a witness who claimed to have seen Hoover engaging in cross-dressing and homosexual acts on two occasions in the 1950s.

Although never corroborated, the allegation of cross-dressing has been widely repeated, and "J. Edna Hoover" has become the subject of humor on television, in movies, and elsewhere. In the words of author Thomas Doherty, "For American popular culture, the image of the zaftig FBI director as a Christine Jorgensen wanna-be was too delicious not to savor. Most biographers consider the story of Mafia blackmail to be unlikely in light of the FBI's actual investigations of the Mafia.

Hoover has been described as becoming increasingly a caricature of himself towards the end of his life. Schott, portrays a rigid, paranoid old man who terrified everyone. For example, Hoover liked to write on the margins of memos. According to Schott, when one memo had too narrow margins he wrote, "watch the borders!

Biography of John Edgar Hoover

It took a week before an HQ staffer realized the message related to the borders of the memo paper. Hoovers, and that further, J. Genealogist George Ott investigated these claims and found some supporting circumstantial evidence, as well as unusual alterations of records pertaining to Hoover's officially recorded family in Washington, D.

  • Mark Felt remaining as Associate Director;
  • In 1964, just days before Hoover testified in the earliest stages of the Warren Commission hearings, President Lyndon B;
  • Under his leadership, the FBI spied upon tens of thousands of suspected subversives and radicals;
  • These actions reflected the biases and prejudices of the country at large, especially in the attempts to prevent Martin Luther King, Jr;
  • Edgar Hoover and his assistant Clyde Tolson sitting in beach lounge chairs, circa 1939 For decades, there has been speculation and rumors that Hoover was homosexual, but no concrete evidence of these claims has ever been presented;
  • Hoover kept the intercepts — America's greatest counterintelligence secret — in a locked safe in his office.

Edgar Hoover's birth certificate was not filed until 1938, when he was 43 years old. This entitled him to the postnominal letters KBE, but not to the use of the title, "Sir.

Johnson for his service as Director of the FBI. Edgar Hoover Building after him. On Hoover's death, Congress voted its permission for his body to lie in state in the Capitol Rotunda, an honor that, at the time, had been accorded to only twenty-one other Americans. Edgar Hoover was the nominal author of a number of books and articles. Although it is widely believed that all of these were ghostwritten by FBI employees, Hoover received the credit and royalties. A Study of Communism. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Edgar Hoover is remembered for exceeding and abusing his authority.

He infamously investigated individuals, including Martin Luther King, Jr. He also used the FBI for other illegal activities, such as burglaries and illegal wire-tapping. As an unelected official, he may well have exercised more power than many elected politicians. There is a delicate balance between giving security and intelligence agencies the authority they need to protect the state from enemies, and to prosecute criminals and giving too much power that subsequently gets abused.

Subsequent Directors of the FBI have been limited to 10 years in office in order to prevent their acquiring the degree of leverage that Hoover did. He saw himself as a Cold War warrior fighting on the home front but his targeting of those whom he personally disliked almost certainly represents an abuse of power.

On the other hand, he did much to combat organized crime and to develop an efficient investigative and security agency at the Federal level, with resources unavailable to local police and law enforcement agencies.

Schott, No Left Turns: Praeger, 1975, ISBN 0275336301. Code Title 28, part 2, chapter 33. Policing, Detention, and Prisons New York: Nixon Suspected Felt, June 3, 2005. Retrieved March 15, 2018. Mark Felt and John D. O'Connor, A G-man's Life: Percy and Warren Johansson, Outing: Shattering the Conspiracy of Silence New York: