Essays academic service


A biography of rachel lousie carson born on a farm in springdale

Her philosophy and life work were summed up thus: As a child, she spent many hours learning about ponds, fields, and forests from her mother. A reader, loner, birdlover and nature lover, she continued writing throughout adolescence. She chose an English major at Pennsylvania College for Women and continued to submit poetry to periodicals. Not until her junior year, when a biology course reawakened the "sense of wonder" with which she had always encountered the natural world, did she switch her majors to zoology and marine biology, not yet aware that her literary and scientific passions would complement each other to the point of sparking environmental reform.

Despite financial difficulties, she continued her studies in zoology and genetics at the Johns Hopkins Universityearning a master's degree in zoology in 1932.

  1. In showing that all biological systems were dynamic and by urging the public to question authority, to ask "who speaks, and why"?
  2. April 14, 1964 in Silver Spring, Maryland Rachel Carson, writer, scientist, and ecologist, grew up simply in the rural river town of Springdale, Pennsylvania.
  3. Carson decided it would be more effective to raise the issue in a popular magazine; however, publishers were uninterested, and eventually the project instead became a book.

She continued to study towards her doctoral degree, particularly at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Her financial situation, never satisfactory, became worse in 1932 when her father died, leaving Carson to care for her aging mother; this burden made continued doctoral studies impossible.

Bureau of Fisheries as a science writer working on radio scripts. In the process, she had to overcome resistance to the then-radical idea of having a woman sit for the American Civil Service exam. In spite of the odds, she outscored all other applicants on the exam and in 1936 became only the second woman to be hired by the Bureau of Fisheries for a full-time, professional position, as a junior aquatic biologist.

Early career and publications At the U. Bureau of Fisheries, Carson worked on everything from cookbooks to scientific journals and became known for her ruthless insistence on high standards of writing.

Early in her career, the head of the Bureau's Division of Scientific Inquiry, who had been instrumental in finding a position for her in the first place, rejected one of Carson's radio scripts because it was "too literary. To Carson's astonishment and delight, it was accepted, and published as "Undersea" in 1937. Other sources state that it was the editor of the Baltimore Sun newspaper who made the Atlantic Monthly suggestion—Carson had been supplementing her meager income by writing short articles for that paper for some time.

Several years of working in the evenings resulted in Under the Sea-Wind 1941 which received excellent reviews but was a commercial flop. Carson rose within the Bureau by then transformed into the Fish and Wildlife Servicebecoming chief editor of publications in 1949.

For some time she had been working on material for a second book: It remained on the New York Times bestseller list for 86 weeks, was abridged by Reader's Digest, won the 1952 National Book Award, and resulted in Carson being awarded two honorary doctorates. It was also made into a 61-minute long documentary film, winning an Oscar. With success came financial security, and Carson was able to give up her job in 1952 to concentrate on writing full time.

She completed the third volume of her sea trilogy, The Edge of the Sea, in 1955. Through 1956 and 1957, Carson worked on a number of projects and wrote articles for popular magazines.

In 1937, Carson's family responsibilities further increased when her older sister died at the age of 40, and she took on responsibility for her two nieces. Family tragedy struck a third time when one of the nieces she had cared for in the 1940s died at the age of 36, leaving a five-year-old orphaned son. Carson took on the care of that child, along with continued responsibility of caring for her mother, who was almost 90 by this time. She adopted the boy and, needing a suitable place to raise him, bought a rural property in Maryland.

This environment was to be a major factor in the choice of her next topic.

  1. May 27, 1907 in Springdale, Pennsylvania Died. Early in her career, the head of the Bureau's Division of Scientific Inquiry, who had been instrumental in finding a position for her in the first place, rejected one of Carson's radio scripts because it was "too literary.
  2. It became an international best-seller, raised the consciousness of a generation, and made Rachel Carson the trusted public voice of science in America.
  3. These books constituted a biography of the ocean and made Carson famous as a naturalist and science writer for the public. She liked to read the St.
  4. In Silent Spring 1962 she challenged the practices of agricultural scientists and the government and called for a change in the way humankind viewed the natural world.
  5. Marine biologist, author, and environmentalist Born. It was treated, but after several years cancer came back.

Silent Spring and the DDT ban Beginning in the mid-1940s, Carson became concerned about the use of newly invented pesticidesespecially DDT dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. It was known as Carson's crusade, and she worked on this book until her death.

Carson explored the subject of environmental connectedness: The four-year task of writing Silent Spring began with a letter from a close friend of Carson's. According to the letter, the sanctuary had been sprayed unmercifully by the government. The letter asked Carson to immediately use her influence with government authorities to begin an investigation into pesticide use.

Carson decided it would be more effective to raise the issue in a popular magazine; however, publishers were uninterested, and eventually the project instead became a book.

Now, as a renowned author, she was able to ask for, and receive, the aid of prominent biologistschemistspathologists, and entomologists.

Rachel Carson

She used Silent Spring to create a mental association in the public's mind between wildlife mortality and over-use of pesticides such as dieldrin, toxaphene, and heptachlor.

Her cautions regarding the previously little-remarked practices of introducing an enormous variety of industrial products and wastes into wilderness, waterways, and human habitats with little concern for possible toxicity struck the general public as common sense, as much as good science.

Rachel Carson

We are subjecting whole populations to exposure to chemicals which animal experiments have proved to be extremely poisonous and in many cases cumulative in their effects. These exposures now begin at or before birth and - unless we change our methods - will continue through the lifetime of those now living. No one knows what the results will be because we have no previous experience to guide us. Carson was violently assailed by threats of lawsuits and derision, including suggestions that this meticulous scientist was a "hysterical woman" unqualified to write such a book.

A huge counterattack was organized and led by Monsanto, Velsicol, American Cyanamid - indeed, the whole chemical industry - duly supported by the Agriculture Department as well as the more cautious in the media.

Some went as far as characterizing her as a mere birdwatcher with more spare time than scientific background, calling her unprofessional, and a fringe of her critics accused her of being a communist. In addition, many critics repeatedly asserted that she was calling for the elimination of all pesticides; despite the fact that Carson had made it clear she was not advocating the banning or complete withdrawal of helpful pesticides, but was instead encouraging responsible and carefully managed use with an awareness of the chemicals' impact on the entire ecosystem.

In fact, she concludes her section on DDT in Silent Spring not by urging a total ban, but with Practical advice should be "Spray as little as you possibly can" rather than "Spray to the limit of your capacity.

Keep Exploring Britannica

Silent Spring was positively reviewed by many outside of the agricultural and chemical science fields, and it became a runaway best seller both in the United States and overseas. Again, TIME Magazine noted that, within a year or so of publication, "all but the most self-serving of Carson's attackers were backing rapidly toward safer ground.

In their ugly campaign to reduce a brave scientist's protest to a matter of public relations, the chemical interests had only increased public awareness.

  • Carson worked for 15 years in the U;
  • Rachel loved to read and write stories as a child;
  • She adopted the boy and, needing a suitable place to raise him, bought a rural property in Maryland;
  • Testifying before Congress in 1963, Carson called for new policies to protect human health and the environment;
  • She continued to study towards her doctoral degree, particularly at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

Later that year she was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and received many other honors and awards, including the Audubon Medal and the Cullen Medal of the American Geographical Society.

World wide effect Despite the acceptance of Carson's philosophy in the 1960s, criticism of Carson's work and its effects has grown as developing nations struggle to battle infectious diseases nearly eradicated by DDT.

ADDITIONAL MEDIA

According to former Surgeon General and retired U. Navy Vice Admiral Dr. Koenig, although DDT "provides the most effective, cheapest, and safest means of abating and eradicating" infectious diseases, all changed with the 1962 publication of Carson's tome Silent Spring.

And just as the world's leading scientists predicted 30 years ago, Carson's crusade against DDT has caused the world's deadliest infectious diseases such as typhus and malaria… to make a deadly comeback that will soon threaten the United States and Europe again.

Gradually, however, with the growth of the modern environmental movement, governments in industrialized nations were persuaded to restrict DDT because of fears of damage to birds of prey. Today, because they can afford it, the rich nations control insect-borne diseases with alternative, more expensive, but less effective methods.

This retreat from DDT causes havoc in the developing world, however, where public health programs to fight malaria are partly or wholly dependent on aid from donor countries, which are extremely reluctant to support the use of DDT because of its potential impact on wildlife.

This precautionary protection of wildlife takes precedence over human health and well being, and comes at great cost in malaria-endemic countries.

Her health had been steadily declining since she had been diagnosed with breast cancer halfway through the writing of Silent Spring. In one of her last public appearances, Carson testified before President Kennedy's A biography of rachel lousie carson born on a farm in springdale Advisory Committee, which issued a report on May 15, 1963 largely backing Carson's scientific claims. She died on April 14, 1964, at the age of 56. In 1980, she was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedomthe highest civilian honor in the United States.

Silent Spring remains a founding text for the contemporary environmental movement in the West and is seen as an important work to this day. The Hawlings River runs through this undeveloped park and there are both hiker and equestrian trails through both meadow and woodland.

Numerous schools have been named after her: In Beaverton, Oregon, there is an optional middle school program named after her which is focused on environmental sciences. The Rachel Carson Prize was founded in Stavanger, Norway in 1991, and is awarded to women who have made a contribution in the field of environmental protection.

A Sense of Wonder, a one-woman play based on the life and works of Rachel Carson—written and performed by stage and screen actress Kaiulani Lee—has toured the United StatesCanadaEngland and Italy since 1995.

Retrieved January 24, 2007.