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A history of the struggles during the early christian movement

The Church transcends the contingent facts of this world, yet at the same time is deeply connected to historical events, for its very foundation is rooted in the centrality of the Incarnation of Jesus Christ. The Christian view of history is a vision and interpretation of time in terms of eternity and of human events in the light of divine revelation.

  • Time-Life Books, New York, 1964;
  • The Irish monks that followed him converted much of northern Europe;
  • I will give you the keys to the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven" Matthew 16;
  • Eliot , Flannery O'Connor , Thomas Merton, and Dorothy Day catalogued the spiritual bankruptcy of the twentieth century and called for spiritual renewal;
  • He earned a doctorate in theology in 1948 and a doctorate in philosopy in 1954.

Christianity is the dynamic element in the history of our Western culture. The life of Jesus Christ, the birth of Christianity, and the Apostolic Age the first 100 years speak for themselves, for great historical movements do not spring from non-events. The links and references provide a more in-depth discussion of each topic. Upon their return, the Holy Family settled in Nazareth, where Jesus grew and spent his childhood and early years as an adult.

Hardly anything is known of his life at that time except that he was called a Nazarene Matthew 2: Jesus of Nazareth began his public ministry when he was about thirty years old.

He spent much of his ministry by the Sea of Galilee, preaching in such towns as Capernaum John 6: When his hour came near, he headed toward Jerusalem Luke 9: Jesus often taught in parables, an ancient Eastern literary genre. A parable is a narrative that presents comparisons to teach an important moral lesson. Jesus performs many miracles, demonstrating his power over nature and spirits, and thus confirming that the Kingdom of God is at hand Mark 1: In a physical miracle, such as making the blind see, or walking on water, or calming a storm, the laws of the universe are suspended through divine intervention.

In a moral miracle, such as forgiveness of sins or driving out demons, the blessing of Jesus purifies the spirit. Only three miracles appear in all four Gospels - his own Resurrection, the greatest miracle of them all, the healing of the blind, and the feeding of the 5000 through the multiplication of the loaves. His public ministry lasted about three years, prior to his Passion, Crucifixion, Resurrection, and Ascension. His mission was one of love, mercy, and peace John 15: Christ Jesus is the fulfillment of salvation history and the mediator and fullness of all revelation.

Jesus Christ is the Son of God, the Word made flesh.

  1. Christ Jesus is the fulfillment of salvation history and the mediator and fullness of all revelation.
  2. Monte Cassino placed all of the monks in one monastery under an abbot.
  3. A great sign appeared in the sky, a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars. The universities in Europe began as guilds of scholars, which first attracted members of the clergy and were supported financially by the Church.
  4. Francis originated the Christmas manger scene.
  5. The Second Vatican Council literally "reset the course" for the Catholic Church, a Church which had been described by some as a fortress Church embattled during the Enlightenment and the Modernist era. Francis of Assisi 1182-1226 was born to wealth.

See our home page Jesus Christ for further discussion. Paul to the Romans 1: Following the Resurrection, Matthias was chosen to replace Judas Iscariot. Prior to his Ascension, Jesus commissioned his disciples to be his witnesses to the ends of the earth, as noted in the Acts of the Apostles 1: This strengthened the Apostles to spread the word of Christ Jesus.

The Acts of the Apostles describes the infancy period of the Church, a time following the Pentecost when Christianity spread like wildfire. The Apostles all gathered in Jerusalem Acts 15 to discuss whether Gentiles who had been converted to Christianity had to observe all the ceremonial precepts of the Mosaic Law.

This gathering of the Apostles became known as the Council of Jerusalem, and set the pattern of future Councils to resolve issues that arose within the Church. To the question of Jesus, "Who do you say that I am?

Whereupon Jesus responded, "You are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of the netherworld shall not prevail against it.

I will give you the keys to the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven" Matthew 16: Peter became the first Patriarch of Antioch and ultimately Bishop of Rome. Saul persecuted the Church and consented to the death of the first martyr Stephen. He had men and women who lived the Way thrown into prison.

But while going to Damascus, Saul was struck from his horse by a great light and a voice asked "Why do you persecute me? Christ identified himself with his Church: He then traveled to Arabia, and then returned to Damascus, where he remained for three years Galatians 1: Paul, as Apostle to the Gentiles, became just as passionate spreading Christianity as he was in persecuting Christians before his conversion.

Peter was crucified upside down and St. Paul was beheaded, both probably in 64-68 AD. In fact, all of the Apostles were martyred for having preached the Gospel, except for St. Heeding the message of Jesus Christ to Go therefore and make disciples of all nations Matthew 28: Andrew, Peter's brother, was the first to be called to follow Jesus, and is called by the Byzantine Church the Protoclete, meaning the first called.

Andrew evangelized Byzantium, appointed Stachys Romans 16: James, the son of Zebedee and brother of John, is believed to have preached in Spain; he is the only Apostle to have his martyrdom recorded in the Bible Acts 12: John, the son of Zebedee and the brother of James, was the "one Jesus loved.

Christ on the Cross entrusted his mother Mary to John 19: He played an important role as head of the Church of Jerusalem, and writer of the Letter of James in the Bible. According to the historian Flavius Josephus, he was stoned to death in 62 AD.

But when he put his hand in the Lord's side, he reacted with a beautiful profession of faith: Thomas traveled through Chaldea and Persia all the way to India! Little is known about Simon the Zealot or Matthias. The Apostolic Fathers were a group of early Christian writers who knew one of the Apostles and lived about 75-150 AD, and sought to define, organize, and defend the faith, such as Ignatius of Antioch, Clement of Rome, Polycarp of Smyrna, and the author s of the Didache.

Ignatius of Antioch was designated Bishop of Syria by St. Peter on his trip to Antioch to meet St. Ignatius was the first to use the term Catholic Church in his Letter a history of the struggles during the early christian movement the Smyrnaeans. The word catholic means universal and refers to the universal Church of Jesus Christ.

Ignatius of Antioch would not worship the Emperor Trajan, and thus was placed in chains and martyred in Rome when thrown to the lions in the Coliseum.

HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CHRISTIANITY

He wrote seven letters on his trip to Rome, which proved to be a unifying event for all of the early Churches. He established the Church hierarchy of bishop, priest, and deacon for the early Churches, the pattern which still exists today. In his First Apology written in 155, he described the Memorial of the Last Supper on Sunday, one that would be called the Divine Liturgy in the East and the Mass in the West, an event which has remained essentially the same for nearly 2000 years.

For not as common bread and common drink do we receive these, but in like manner as Jesus Christ our Savior, having been made flesh by the Word of God. The Eastern Christian Churches are characterized by a rich heritage with Apostolic origin, and are treasured by the universal Church, for the East was the home of Jesus Christ our Redeemer! Jerusalem is the birthplace to all of Christianity throughout the world. The Levant, the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, served as the cradle of Christianity.

Indeed, followers of Christ were first called Christians in Antioch Acts 11: They also became known as Nazarenes Acts 24: Mark the Evangelist founded the Church of Alexandria, Egypt. Eusebius of Caesarea in his Ecclesiastical History reported that King Abgar of Edessa was afflicted with illness and contacted Jesus in the hope of a cure. Upon his healing by St.

Jude Thaddeus, King Abgar converted to Christianity. Edessa became home to such writers as St. Ephrem wrote his beautiful hymns and religious poetry in the Estrangela script of Syriac, a dialect of the Semitic language of Aramaic, the language of Jesus.

Syriac became the biblical and liturgical language of early Christian Churches in the East.

The theology of Eastern Churches often developed independently, outside the sway of Roman and Byzantine thought. But their powerful witness through martyrdom only served to spread Christianity!

  1. What does it profit, my brethren, if a man says he has faith but has not works?
  2. The Bishop fell on his knees in adoration before the tilma, as well as everyone else in the room.
  3. If man could make it on his own, then the Cross of Christ becomes meaningless! Upon his healing by St.
  4. Following the Resurrection, Matthias was chosen to replace Judas Iscariot.

Constantine became Emperor of the West in 306. As he was in Gaul at the time, he still had to capture Rome where Maxentius held sway. Welcome relief from Christian martyrdom came with the Edict of Milan in 313, through which Constantine and Licinius, the Emperor of the East, granted Christianity complete religious tolerance. His defeat of Licinius in 324 made him sole Emperor of the entire Roman Empire, and he moved the seat of the Empire to Byzantium in 330 and renamed it Constantinople.

Constantine considered himself Christian and did much to protect and support Christianity. Sunday as the Lord's Day was made a day of rest, and December 25 was celebrated as the birthday of Jesus. He restored property that once belonged to Christians.

  • Heeding the message of Jesus Christ to Go therefore and make disciples of all nations Matthew 28;
  • Paul to the Romans 1:

Christianity remain undivided until mankind sought to define the hidden nature of God and the mystery of Christ. A dispute concerning the relation of the Father and the Son arose in Egypt known as the Arian controversy. The Nicene Creed was expanded and finalized at the Council of Constantinople in 381 to include homoousios for the Holy Spirit as well, by quoting John 15: Constantine considered himself both head of state and father of the Christian Churches.

There were eight named writers of the New Testament: The Tradition of the Fathers of the Church was important to early Christianity, for they were the ones who chose those inspired books which best reflected the life and teachings of Jesus Christ in the formation of the canon of the New Testament, and were also involved in the interpretation of Scripture.

Jerome that "Matthew put together the sayings of the Lord in the Hebrew language, and each one interpreted them as best he could" Papias, in Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, III, 39, 16.

Catherine's Monastery on Mt. Jerome 345-420 was commissioned by Pope Damasus in 382 to produce a new Latin translation of the Bible. Jerome completed the translation of the Greek New Testament into Latin in 384, and finished his translation from both Greek and Hebrew manuscripts of the Old Testament by 405. In view of his work, St. Jerome was named the Father of Biblical Scholars. The Latin Vulgate Bible published by St. Jerome served as the standard Bible for Western Christian civilization for over 1000 years.

He was born in Tagaste, near Hippo, in north Africa. Monica was a devout Christian and taught him the faith.