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Adolf hitler rise to power and his final solution

As dictator, he began a campaign of terror to rid Germany of Jewish influence. How the Nazis consolidated their power and control of the German government.

That Hitler rose to power in a democracy which had a structure similar to that of modern democracies. That historical events often trigger political responses and mold public opinion, and that extremist political movements do not suddenly rise to power in a vacuum but do so as a result of latent instability of the society in which they exist.

Radical Nazis wanted to seize power, but Hitler insisted that he would come to power legally and that he would accept nothing less than the chancellorship. The internal political situation, meanwhile, was very unstable and many Germans were revolted by the brutal street fighting of the Stormtroopers.

In the summer of 1932, Franz von Papen destroyed the last bulwark of German democracy, the federal state of Prussia, by charging that Prussia could not maintain law and order.

Early in January 1933, von Papen and Hitler met in the home of a Cologne banker, Kurt von Schroder, who pledged funds needed by the Nazi party, and a group of industrialists reassured Hindenburg to let Hitler form a cabinet. Von Papen reassured Hindenburg that he as vice-chancellor would always accompany Hitler in his talks with the president. Reluctantly, Hindenburg agreed, and on January 30, 1933, Hitler became chancellor at the age of 43.

He had indeed come to power legally. Among the first actions of the new Chancellor was enactment of an Emergency Decree directed at eliminating political opposition from the Communists.

This decree was passed just six days into the Hitler Administration, and it called for the dismantling of leftist organizations.

All Communist party buildings were expropriated. Hitler blamed the fire on the Communists. Although the case is still somewhat disputed, the fire was very likely instigated by the Nazis and blamed on a Dutch Communist adolf hitler rise to power and his final solution had committed arson, Marinus van der Lubbe.

There was no sign whatsoever of a revolution, but van der Lubbe gave the Nazis the excuse they needed and the pretext for new emergency measures. Arrests could be made on suspicion, and people could be sentenced to prison without trial or the right of counsel. The suspension was never lifted throughout the entire period of Nazi rule, and the decree of February 28th destroyed fundamental guarantees under the Weimar democracy. Arbitrary arrests multiplied while truckloads of Stormtroopers rampaged through the streets, broke into homes, rounded up victims, including many Jews, and took them to the S.

The Nazis received 44 percent of the vote in the March elections. On March 23rd, the last Reichstag met in an opera house, surrounded by S. Most of the Communist and a number of Socialist deputies had already been arrested. He could now use this power without the Reichstag, and ignore the Constitution. All opposition political parties were destroyed or dissolved themselves.

From Persecution to Genocide

Trade unions were liquidated. Opposition clergy were arrested. Lists of specific businesses and individuals to be boycotted were published.

  • Unexpectedly, however, the invasion of Russia did not culminate in a quick victory, and the resistance of the Red Army prevented the Nazis from using Siberia as the destination for unwanted Jews;
  • Although allied with Germany, the Italians did not participate in the Holocaust until Germany occupied northern Italy after the overthrow of Fascist leader Benito Mussolini;
  • Many great writers, musicians, artists and actors fled Germany or were silenced;
  • On May 10, 1933, in Berlin, the first of a series of book burnings took place;
  • As discrimination against Jews increased, German law required a legal definition of a Jew and an Aryan.

Germans who tried to buy from Jews were shamed and exposed publicly. The boycott lasted only three days but it had important implications and consequences. Moreover, it revealed the completeness and efficiency of Nazi information on Jewish economic life. It also strengthened the idea that it was permissible to damage and even destroy that life with impunity.

Later measures were based on this assumption. City governments responded by passing other laws discriminating against Jews. In Frankfurt, Jewish teachers were excluded from universities, and Jewish performers were barred from the stage and concert halls. In other cities, Jews were excluded from admission to the legal profession. On April 25th, a numerus clausus, or quota law, limited admission of Jews to institutions of higher learning to 1.

On September 29th, Jews could no longer own farmland. Eventually, 400 specific anti-Jewish laws and decrees were passed, each based on the Nazi racist definition of a non-Aryan.

Terror, much of it state-condoned, continued against Jews and leftists. Many were beaten to death for being in the wrong place at the wrong time. Some in despair committed suicide.

Many others fled to Palestine or to other countries where they perceived they would be safe. Nazi Concentration Camps In 1933, ten concentration camps were set up in Germany — the first at Dachau — at first for the purpose of imprisoning political opponents of the regime and then for specific victims, such as Jews and homosexuals.

The concentration camps were intended not only to break the prisoners as individuals and to spread terror among the rest of the population, but also to provide the Gestapo with a training ground, a way of conditioning them so that they would lose all familiar human emotions and attitudes.

In talks with a Nazi leader even before he became chancellor, Hitler had said: Terror is the most effective political instrument…It is my duty to make use of every means of training the German people to cruelty, and to prepare them for war…There must be no weakness or tenderness.

They overlapped and often feuded with one another over power and booty. After purging the regular police and replacing them with Nazis, he added a small unit of his own, the Secret State Police, or Gestapo.

Himmler had been a chicken farmer and fertilizer salesman before the war. In 1923, he participated in the attempted putsch of 1923 see Chapter 6 and for a time worked in the party office in Landshut.

  • The paradox was that Nazi ideology stemmed from Germany and the German people, among whom Jews eagerly wanted to acculturate;
  • With the extermination camps, the process was reversed;
  • Terror is the most effective political instrument…It is my duty to make use of every means of training the German people to cruelty, and to prepare them for war…There must be no weakness or tenderness;
  • Himmler and SS commanders were already looking at more discreet and efficient killing methods.

In this job, he began to collect confidential reports on Party members made by his spies, thus building up secret files later used by Reinhard Heydrich in the Security Service S. He had helped to secure Bavaria for the Nazis and fell under the spell of those who wanted to breed a future race of blond Nordic leaders as world overlords. For a few years, the S.

Stormtroopersbut Himmler steadily built up his force into a combination private army and police force, enlisting only the most loyal followers of Hitler and racial fanatics like himself. The open membership of the S. In addition to this complement, Himmler recruited a shadow corps of S. They told Hitler that Rohm was plotting against him and urged drastic action.

Hitler made much of the depraved morals of the men who were killed and the danger they posed to the state. The army, of course, was pleased with the elimination of the S. As a reward for carrying out the executions on June 30th, Himmler advanced in rank and prestige. Guard duty was given to the S. Death Head units, whose members were recruited from the toughest, most sadistic Nazi elements. By 1936, the Gestapo was absorbed into the S. Later, Himmler created an S.

Supreme Command, consisting of twelve departments which duplicated many of the departments of the government, including a huge army and a department that organized huge population upheavals after the war started. A third system of terror during the Third Reich was the S. This sub-structure was also within the S. Under Reinhard Heydrich, the head of the S. After the purge of the S. Many of his recruits were bright, university-trained men who were unable to find jobs, but their civilized backgrounds were no barrier to later assignments carrying out orders in the murderous Einsatzgruppen, or mobile killing squads, that accompanied the German army into Russia see Chapter 10.

This department gathered information about prominent Jews in Germany and abroad and monitored the Jewish press. It also made studies of Jewish organizations and books about Judaism. Jewish organizations in Germany, their meetings and members came under close S. By 1936, Himmler turned over the administration of the Gestapo to Heydrich, and the line between the Gestapo and S. Book Burnings Book burnings became commonplace in pre-war Germany.

The Nazis denigrated much of the Western cultural heritage of Europe and liberal, humanistic values. On May 10, adolf hitler rise to power and his final solution, in Berlin, the first of a series of book burnings took place. Wells, and Emile Zola as well as those of Jewish writers were burned in huge bonfires under the approving eye of Joseph Goebbels, the Propaganda Minister.

  1. Historians are divided about the motivations of the members of Einsatzgruppen.
  2. Auschwitz, perhaps the most notorious and lethal of the concentration camps, was actually three camps in one. On September 29th, Jews could no longer own farmland.
  3. In the 1928 elections, its support declined; the party was able to send only twelve delegates to the legislature. In October 1941, Hitler agreed to the deportation of German and Austrian Jews to 'the East' but stipulated that they were not to be murdered.
  4. The Nazis now had a definition that was the first of a chain of measures, one leading to another, escalating in severity and leading ultimately to the physical destruction of European Jewry. Terror, much of it state-condoned, continued against Jews and leftists.
  5. Jewish organizations in Germany, their meetings and members came under close S. However, he and his associates left no doubt about their belief in democratic freedoms as mere tools with which power might be attained.

While the books burned, Goebbels declared: These flames not only illuminate the final end of an old era; they also light up the new. Many great writers, musicians, artists and actors fled Germany or were silenced. Anti-Semitism in the German Media Anti-Semitic hate spewed out of the press and government information offices during this period.

More than 100,000 copies of the issue were printed and distributed.

The First Moments of Hitler’s Final Solution

Nazi propaganda beamed to Palestine exacerbated Arab hostility toward German Jews who had settled there, and sparked anti-Jewish riots. Nuremberg Laws September 1935 On September 15, 1935, comprehensive new laws codified the racial policies which Hitler envisioned in Mein Kampf. Jews were forbidden to fly the German flag. This law stripped Jews of all basic civil rights, classifying them as state subjects rather than as citizens. Jews were defined as a separate race.

Thirteen supplementary laws were passed during the next eight years.

  1. In April 1933 he permitted an organised boycott of Jewish businesses and his government enacted a string of laws that gradually excluded the Jews from government employment and public life. Individuals had a choice whether to participate or not.
  2. Nazi anti-Semitism and the origins of the Holocaust Even before the Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933, they had made no secret of their anti-Semitism.
  3. As part of the process of gearing the German economy for war, Hitler sanctioned semi-legal measures to seize the businesses and assets of German and Austrian Jews - a process called 'Aryanisation'.
  4. The Jews, they claimed, had done much to spread defeatism and thus destroy the German army. Wells, and Emile Zola as well as those of Jewish writers were burned in huge bonfires under the approving eye of Joseph Goebbels, the Propaganda Minister.
  5. Nazi anti-Jewish policy functioned on two primary levels. The most famous was Oskar Schindler , a Nazi businessman, who had set up operations using involuntary labour in German-occupied Poland in order to profit from the war.

Jews were further defined as persons having three Jewish grandparents, two Jewish grandparents if they belonged to the Jewish religious community before September 15, 1935, or if they were married to a Jew as of that date.

No one at this time could envision the ominous Nazi decision to physically destroy all Jews, but the Nuremberg Laws were an important step toward that end. The Nazis now had a definition that was the first of a chain of measures, one leading to another, escalating in severity and leading ultimately to the physical destruction of European Jewry. Once Jews could be defined and identified, they now could be and were segregated socially, politically, and economically from other Germans.

Rise of the Nazis and Beginning of Persecution

Their property could be and was confiscated. They had become pariahs, outside the protection of the state they had placed their confidence in for generations. By the time that the Nuremberg Laws had been proposed, more than 75,000 German Jews had fled the country. As such, they were subject to the same harassment, social and economic isolation, and physical and emotional intimidation and discrimination as the Jews.

Almost 10,000 went to the United States.