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Automated wind mill tracking mppt using fuzzy

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Since the wind and solar sources are not reliable in terms of sustainability and power quality, a management system is required for supplying the load power demand.

The power generated by RES is collected on a common DC bus as a renewable green power pool to be used for supplying power to loads. The renewable DC power bus is operated in a way that there is always a base power available for permanent loads. Then the automated wind mill tracking mppt using fuzzy power requirement is supplied from either wind or PV or both depending upon the availability of these power sources.

The decision about operating these systems is given by an IEMS with fuzzy logic decision maker proposed in this study. Besides, the IEMS tracks the maximum power operating point of the wind energy system. Since these sources have unlimited supply and they do not cause environmental pollution, they are studied extensively lately and utilized more and more every day. Governments put in new legislations and feed-in-tariffs to encourage the investors to install new renewable energy utilization sites [ 1 — 3 ] and studies on this topic are supported by many foundations.

Renewable energy sources consist of solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and wave energy which are considered to be endless since they exist naturally and they always renew themselves [ 4 ].

International Journal of Photoenergy

It is one of the important topics that researchers and scientist work on to obtain energy from these sources and use this energy by transforming it into the form of electrical energy.

Solar and wind energies have a distinguished place among these energy types. There are wind and sun everywhere on earth; therefore, there is more intense study on these sources. The aim is not only automated wind mill tracking mppt using fuzzy obtain the energy but also to turn the energy to proper values, manage the existent energy, and terminate the harmonics.

While managing all these, lowering the cost of the system in every step is taken into consideration. Today, producing electrical energy from these renewable sources appears to be the main objective [ 5 — 7 ]. The combined operation of these systems is far more complex than operating them separately.

In a system with only solar or wind energy, just one element is controlled. In a hybrid scheme, both sources are controlled individually and simultaneously depending upon the operating conditions and energy demand.

During low sunlight conditions, photovoltaic PV solar panel cannot supply consistent power. Similarly, wind turbine will not work in conditions without wind. In this case, the required energy must have the structure to make up the lack of energy in conditions when this system does not work regularly or the composition produces less energy than the requirement.

Power management assures that the system works efficiently while preventing the lack of energy in loads. Here it is aimed at obtaining clean and sustainable energy in stable frequency and definite voltage. While or after obtaining the energy, harmonics must be definitely controlled.

Comparative study of different MPPT methods for wind energy conversion system

Power management is important to assure both economical and efficient work of the system in combined usage of renewable energy sources. Variable weather conditions, day-night conditions, and rapid change in voltages make this necessary.

Power management can be achieved by using maximum power point tracking MPPT [ 8 ] devices in order to determine the most efficient operating point of a system in a particular weather condition and by switching the systems so that they become active to support each other dynamically. It is important to keep the backup batteries full in times when there is neither sun nor wind.

Without backup batteries there will be no energy in the system. Nowadays renewable energy sources are structured in two ways as grid connected and standalone. Renewable energy sources as solar energy and wind energy can be used to feed loads far from the grid especially the home type ones.

However, there are problems in these types of systems when there is no sun or wind. Users become fully powerless after the batteries are flat which are used as backup systems.

An alternative situation to this is to connect the loads to the grid if they are close to it, in conditions that there is no sun or wind and the batteries are empty [ 9 ]. In literature review, it can be seen that there are many researches which include wind turbine and PV solar panels used together [ 1011 ] and the loads are fed with the energy obtained and power management conducted [ 12 — 14 ].

The main aim here is to gain maximum power according to environmental conditions and whether the obtained energy is to be fed by wind energy system WES or by PV solar panels systems according to changing load conditions. Similar to wind turbines and PV solar panels, there are several studies related to energy management and power flow in electrical power systems and other energy generation units [ 15 — 17 ].

Energy sources such as PV solar panels, wind turbines, fuel cell, and diesel generator can be used both as standalone or hybrid. The studies aim to increase power quality, ensure energy sustainability, and stabilize the amplitude and frequency of the voltage on the load side on a definite value.

Besides, the energy management occupies an important part of the studies related to renewable energy utilization schemes [ 13 ]. Energy management in renewable energy systems deals with both source and user side control issues to keep the overall system running smoothly [ 2526 ]. It is tried to run the system continuously at this point by defining the maximum power point with more efficient controls of power electronics converters. While there are studies automated wind mill tracking mppt using fuzzy calculation of instantaneous generated power decided according to measurements of the environmental conditions, studies which focus on the efficient controls are conducted for similarly used engines to produce maximum power production.

It is aimed that the wind turbines work with maximum efficiency [ 27 — 33 ].

  • Then the additional power requirement is supplied from either wind or PV or both depending upon the availability of these power sources;
  • A fuzzy logic based decision making algorithm is developed and used for this multi-input, multiobjective system;
  • The power management algorithm PMA is developed to operate both photovoltaic energy system PVES and wind energy system WES at the maximum power they can generate under various environmental conditions while maintaining power supply demand of the load side at required amount;
  • During low sunlight conditions, photovoltaic PV solar panel cannot supply consistent power.

In this study, there is an MPPT designed in a different way from these methods. Here, smart control software continuously and accurately calculates the maximum power that can be obtained from the wind turbine.

A New Energy Management Technique for PV/Wind/Grid Renewable Energy System

Moreover, it is different than the other methods which include expensive control and measurement methods in that it is much cheaper and simpler. In this study, a power management system will feed the loads from a hybrid power generation system consisting of PV solar panels, WES and grid. The hybrid system is connected to a common DC bus, which is used as a power pool for sustainability.

  • Similarly, wind turbine will not work in conditions without wind;
  • The system consists of PV and wind power generating units and a utility grid as hybrid electrical sources;
  • Energy management in renewable energy systems deals with both source and user side control issues to keep the overall system running smoothly [ 25 , 26 ];
  • The combined operation of these systems is far more complex than operating them separately;
  • An alternative situation to this is to connect the loads to the grid if they are close to it, in conditions that there is no sun or wind and the batteries are empty [ 9 ];
  • The photocurrent is a function of solar irradiation and changes with the sunlight.

PV system is also connected to a backup battery unit to be charged for emergency usage when additional power is needed. In addition to the source side, the load side management is also very important for the renewable energy systems and also considered in this study. Besides, energy management software can rapidly and continuously respond without being bounded to environmental conditions, which keep continuously some amount of power in reserve and during instantaneous load changes control the system efficiently.

This study is different from the others in its being efficient management approach and having different, cheaper, and simpler peak power point tracking.

System Description and Methodology The overall scheme of the proposed hybrid renewable power management system is given in Figure 1. The system consists of PV and wind power generating units and a utility grid as hybrid electrical sources. These three generating units are automated wind mill tracking mppt using fuzzy to a DC power pool over the required converters.

A backup battery group is also connected to PV system in order to store the extra generated solar power when all generated power from the PV is not delivered to the load.

AC load types are considered in the system and they are connected to AC power bus, which is fed from the common DC power pool. Data collected from source side and load side is transferred to a computer to be evaluated for decision making process of the power management system. Renewable power generation system and energy management. The power management algorithm PMA is developed to operate both photovoltaic energy system PVES and wind energy system WES at the maximum power they can generate under various environmental conditions while maintaining power supply demand of the load side at required amount.

Therefore the power management includes maximum power point tracing of PVES and WES, energy storage, utility connection, and load switching. Besides, the power quality issues such as harmonic elimination, voltage sags, voltage increments, frequency deviations, and voltage magnitude are included in the management system.

It is obvious that there are too many inputs and parameters into the management decision algorithms. A fuzzy logic based decision making algorithm is developed and used for this automated wind mill tracking mppt using fuzzy, multiobjective system.

The voltage-current equation of a PV cell is based on photocurrent of a P-N junction semiconductor. The photocurrent is a function of solar irradiation and changes with the sunlight. The voltage across the connection terminal of the P-N device varies as a function of the photocurrent. When there is a path across the terminals of the P-N device, which is the photovoltaic cell, external current flows through this path, if there is a load on the path then through the load.

The maximum value of this external current, or, in other words, load current, is the short circuit current and assumed to be equal to the generated photocurrent.

  • While or after obtaining the energy, harmonics must be definitely controlled;
  • A fuzzy logic based decision making algorithm is developed and used for this multi-input, multiobjective system.

It is observed that as the cell current increased, the cell gets heated resulting in a decreased terminal voltage. Therefore, considering this voltage decrement and reverse saturation current of the P-N diode, the terminal voltage of a single PV cell is written as in: