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Carr et al 2011 should you have a

Proactive strategies are commonly used for behavior that is maintained by escape, delay, or avoidance Geiger et al. Examples of strategies that have been demonstrated to be effective include curricular revisions Dunlap and Kern 1996providing opportunities for choice making Dunlap et al.

Positive Behavior Support for Individuals with Behavior Challenges

Replacement behaviors Replacement behaviors include skills that offer individuals alternative ways to achieve the function of their behavior of concern and respond more effectively to his circumstances Carr et al. Replacement skills commonly include communication and self-regulation Hansen et al. These skills are taught using effective instructional procedures such as defining skills or task sequences, prompting, chaining, and shaping—embedding opportunities to use the skills to the greatest extent possible within the context of natural routines.

Approaches such as incidental teaching McGee et al. Functional consequences Functional consequences are strategies for responding to behavior, or allowing natural consequences to occur, which have previously been associated with problem behavior e. They simultaneously include withholding reinforcement for problem behavior, in essence combining differential reinforcement Chowdhury and Benson 2011 and extinction Iwata et al.

Function-based interventions have been well documented in terms of their effectiveness across populations and settings Gage et al. The challenge is, of course, managing access to reinforcers in unpredictable natural environments.

  1. Research in Developmental Disabilities.
  2. Functional analysis of problem behavior.
  3. This means that strategies can be implemented within natural routines and are selected based on the available resources, needs, and preferences of the individual and caregivers.
  4. Conceptualizing and measuring family quality of life. Contextualized behavioral support in early intervention for children with autism and their families.
  5. The Willowbrook futures project. Journal on Developmental Disabilities.

This often requires increasing the salience, frequency, or quality of reinforcers for desired behavior to offset natural reinforcement that automatically occurs for problem behavior e.

Proactive Strategies Functional Consequences Provide written expectations and examples of completed work Develop and review social stories i. How does this work? His parents developed a family calendar that displayed upcoming events, travel plans, and when each of them would be absent due to work obligations.

His teacher decided to modify lessons to provide additional structure and redefined expected behavior across activities for all children since she found these carr et al 2011 should you have a to be helpful for her entire class.

Contextual Fit of Interventions Implementing comprehensive, function-based interventions in a collaborative fashion to achieve quality of life outcomes is not easy. This means that strategies can be implemented within natural routines and are selected based on the available resources, needs, and preferences of the individual and caregivers.

Although it may make sense to supplement the instruction embedded in natural routines e. Aligning interventions to improve their fit has been shown to improve implementation and outcomes Benazzi et al.

They did, however, find that they needed to adjust how strategies were implemented across circumstances. Peers varied in their willingness to patiently explain circumstances to Kendrick and therefore were hand-picked as work partners and play mates. Ensuring Buy-in and Implementation People charged with implementing interventions namely, parents, teachers, and other typical caregivers must be empowered to do so.

Empowerment is associated with two critical concepts: Training of parents and direct support providers has been a staple of ABA since the field was defined Alberto and Troutman 2009 ; Kazdin 2005.

In practice, this means creating understandable and feasible protocols for implementation and teaching both principles and procedures. Effective coaching in context is typically required to promote fidelity in using the procedures Hendricks 2009. We have learned, however, that simply teaching skills may be insufficient to fully engage the caregivers in implementation, even when offered the most effective and contextually relevant strategies Allen and Warzak 2000.

This may be related to impeding or competing motivations and perceptions e. In an effort to address caregiver self-efficacy and buy-in, research is emerging that combines cognitive-behavioral methods and PBS Durand and Hieneman 2008 ; Durand et al. The behavior analyst provided them with user-friendly reading materials on the principles of PBS, tools for gathering information, and step-by-step guides for implementing the strategies within each targeted routine e.

With these resources, the parents became expert problem-solvers. With support of the rest of the team, they gradually learned that the new strategies were more efficient than what they were currently doing e. As a result of this collaborative process, Kendrick met all of his goals within one year. He was completing at least 90 carr et al 2011 should you have a of his tasks at school and monitoring his own progress.

He also began doing chores at home. He was able to enjoy time with his brother and peers, without requiring constant adult supervision or aggression. Kendrick had two sleepovers, attended birthday parties, and played online video games with friends.

He began competing in running events with his father. His family resumed their busy social life, traveling to visit relatives and hosting events.

Kendrick learned to devise his own social stories by asking the right questions. The need for behavioral services diminished to a consultative basis, but the team continued to work effectively together to plan and address concerns as needed. Conclusion and Future Directions Positive behavior support combines evidence-based approaches to support individuals with behavioral challenges in a range of community environments. When implemented with fidelity, coordination with natural caregivers, and in a way that respects the integrity of settings and systems in which services are provided, true life-changing results can occur Lucyshyn et al.

Unfortunately, this vision has not been fully realized in practice, and elements of PBS still need to be subjected to rigorous scientific inquiry.

  1. Applying positive behavior support and functional behavioral assessment in schools. Effects of behavior support team composition on the technical adequacy and contextual fit of behavior support plans.
  2. The Willowbrook futures project. Approaches such as incidental teaching McGee et al.
  3. New directions for behavioral intervention. His teacher decided to modify lessons to provide additional structure and redefined expected behavior across activities for all children since she found these strategies to be helpful for her entire class.
  4. Use of differential reinforcement to reduce behavior problems in adults with intellectual disabilities.

As we move forward, researchers and practitioners are challenged to continue enhancing and expanding PBS processes and procedures that are showing promise. Recommendations in this regard include the following: Improve methods for measuring quality of life improvements, linking observable changes in behavior to more subjective methods for evaluating progress. Refine assessment processes and methods to more effectively and efficiently capture idiosyncratic variables contributing to behavior, as well as multiple, overlapping functions that occur in natural environments for individuals.

Continue research to build empirical support for intervention components, building our arsenal of evidence-based practices that work within natural routines. Develop approaches for more effectively engaging families and direct service providers, possibly extending our functional behavioral assessments to understand caregiver motivation.


Expand our knowledge regarding how to align PBS principles and practices across tiers of implementation, ensuring support for individual PBS interventions from the systems in which individuals participate. Footnotes Meme Hieneman is a consultant working with programs that serve children with significant behavioral challenges. Applied behavior analysis for teachers. Contextual fit for behavioral support plans: Including people with difficult behavior in the community. The problem of parental nonadherence in clinical behavioral analysis: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.

Positive behavior support standards of practice: Association for Positive Behavior support. Retrieved March 31, 2014, from http: Bambara LM, Kunsch C.

Effective teaming for positive behavior support. Individual positive behavior supports: A standards-based guide to practices in school and community-based settings. Effects of behavior support team composition on the technical adequacy and contextual fit of behavior support plans. Journal of Special Education.

Antecedent versus consequent events as predictors of problem behavior. Evolution of an applied science. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 4, 4-16. Chowdhury M, Benson BA. Use of differential reinforcement to reduce behavior problems in adults with intellectual disabilities: Research in Developmental Disabilities. Exploring the link among behavior intervention plans, treatment integrity, and student outcomes under natural educational conditions.

Modifying instructional activities to promote desirable behavior: Choice making to promote adaptive behavior for students with emotional and behavioral challenges. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 505—518. Positive behavior carr et al 2011 should you have a and applied behavior analysis: Helping parents with challenging children: Durand VM, Merges E.

Focus on Autism and other Developmental Disabilities. Positive family intervention for severe challenging behavior I: Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 34, 49—61.

Foster-Johnson L, Dunlap G. Using functional assessment to develop effective, individualized interventions for challenging behaviors. Individual Positive Behavior Supports: Function-based treatments for escape-maintained problem behavior: Behavior Analysis in Practice.

Individualized positive behavior support in school settings: Remedial and Special Education. Functional analysis of problem behavior: Effects of aligning self-management interventions with functional behavioral assessment. Education and Treatment of Children, 37, 393—406. Hieneman M, Dunlap G. Some issues and challenges in implementing community-based behavioral support: Two illustrative case studies. New directions for behavioral intervention: Principles, models, and practices.

Factors affecting the outcomes of community-based behavioral support: