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Contributions of scientific and human relations management approaches

Integration and coordination An organization is a continuing system, able to distinguish and integrate human activities. The organization utilizes, transforms and joins together a set of human, material and other resources for problem-solving Bakke, 1959.

The main function of an organization is to satisfy specific human needs in interaction with other sub-systems of human activities and resources in the given environment.

In a research organization, individual needs of researchers are more often in conflict with organizational needs than in any other organization. Therefore, growth of the organization should concurrently also promote growth of the individual. Characteristics of the research organization Social organizations are characterized by their complexity, degree of inter-dependence between sub-systems, openness, balance, and multiplicity of purposes, functions and objectives Huse and Bowditch, 1973.

The prevalence of these sub-systems makes the organization complex.

They have to function in harmony with environmental requirements, goals and functions. This may cause conflicts in the organization unless the sub-systems are appropriately balanced.

  • A manager is accountable for the performance of his or her subordinates;
  • The concept of goal setting is now used to increase the performance of the organization as well as the individual through management by objectives;
  • A manager is accountable for the performance of his or her subordinates;
  • Need for integration Integration and coordination is necessary for several reasons Anderson, 1988;
  • Importance of goal setting Well specified and clear goals improve performance in an organization by:

Forces such as researchers, managerial hierarchy and various inputs from within and outside the organization have to be balanced for the smooth functioning of the organization. In the research organization, a researcher can be viewed as a sub-system with specific needs, goals and functioning, although those needs, goals and functioning may sometimes not match those of the organization.

Goal setting In an organization, goal setting is one of the control systems, a component of the appraisal process and an effective tool for human resource management Locke, 1968; Sherwin, 1976. The concept of goal setting is now used to increase the performance of the organization as well as the individual through management by objectives. Drucker 1954 suggested that management by objectives can be useful for managers for effectively managing the future direction of the organization.

Importance of goal setting Well specified and clear goals improve performance in an organization by: Goals are an objective way of assessing performance in the organization. There is a definite linkage between goal setting and performance. The process of goal setting Peter Drucker suggested thirty years ago that a systematic approach to goal setting and appraising by results leads to improved organizational performance and employee satisfaction. This concept of goal setting is now widely used in most organizations.

The process of goal setting or management by objectives as it is often called involves several steps Luthans, 1985: Goal setting is based on a top-down approach, and involves: For successful implementation of such a system, it is essential to prepare the members in the organization. Individual goals are decided jointly by superiors and subordinates. Once goals are finalized, an action plan is developed for implementation.

An appraisal and feedback system is an important part of goal setting. The individual is given feedback on his or her performance, and provided with suitable rewards and motivation. Integration and coordination Integration and coordination refer to integration of the objectives and activities of specialized units or sub-systems in order to achieve the organization's overall strategic objectives.

Coordination and integration are necessary controlling mechanisms to ensure placid functioning, particularly when organizations become large and complex. Integration aims at ensuring that different sub-systems work towards common goals. Integration of the organizational sub-systems relates to differentiation and division of labour in the organization. Organizational differentiation means un-bundling and re-arranging of activities.

Re-grouping and contributions of scientific and human relations management approaches them is organizational integration Lawrence and Lorsch, 1967.

When different units are assigned different tasks and functions, they set independent goals for performing the assigned tasks and function accordingly. In such situations, integration of the activities of different sub-systems is necessary to facilitate smooth working and to bridge communication gaps.

In research organizations, integration of research units and administrative units is very important for the smooth functioning of research activities. Need for integration Integration and coordination is necessary for several reasons Anderson, 1988: Need for integration also increases with increase in structural dimensions.

For the purpose of achieving these strategic objectives, a research manager has to coordinate different units. When different units are assigned different goals and tasks, conflicts are inevitable. A manager needs to integrate and coordinate the work of different sub-units to effectively resolve conflicts.

This may cause conflict. Methods of integration Within any large organization it is important to have proper communication systems to enable different sub-systems to coordinate various activities and avoid obstacles in the work environment. Lack of proper coordination often causes conflicts in an organization. To ensure proper coordination in research organizations, the research manager has to take care of behavioural dimensions such as motivation and conflicts while ensuring an efficient overall structure.

Achieving integration The structure of a research institution needs to be suitably designed to facilitate proper coordination and integration of different specialized units. A poorly designed structure may: Coordinating vertically through hierarchy Work is assigned to specialized units and coordinated by a manager.

A hierarchy vertical of authority evolves from lower to higher levels. A manager can use the following principles of hierarchy of authority for integrating specialized units: Every worker should report to only one manager. Decision making authority and a chain of command should be from the top to lower levels. A manager is accountable for the performance of his or her subordinates. In turn, subordinates are responsible to their manager for their performance.

Determining the decision making level A manager has to decide about the levels at which decisions are to be taken, and this would depend upon the type, impact and values of decisions.

A Timeline of Management and Leadership

Deciding the span of control Span of control refers to the number of specialized activities or personnel supervised by one manager. There is no optimal number for a span of control and number of levels in the hierarchy.

In fact, span of control and hierarchy levels are inter-related and depend on situational factors Barkdull, 1963. Some of the important situational factors are: Methods to improve integration There are several ways to improve integration, the most common being through a hierarchy of authority.

For this, specialized units whose activities are inter-related could be put under one manager. Using committees to improve coordination is more difficult than other methods, as it requires considerable skills in group dynamics and technical knowledge on the part of the chairperson of the committee.

The person who takes this role must not be involved directly in the work, but tries to assist managers in improving integration.