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Difference between hostile aggression and instrumental aggression

Social psychologists define aggression as "intentional harm.

  • Instrumental aggression is a form of aggression in which the individual intentionally acts in an aggressive manner in order to achieve a particular goal;
  • Instrumental aggression is usually planned;
  • Consider how social psychologists would analyze each of the following behaviors;
  • Within the legal system, juries and judges are frequently asked to determine whether harm was done intentionally.

Instrumental aggression is the intentional use of harmful behavior so that one can achieve some other goal. Hostile aggression has the sole goal of causing injury or death to the victim.

Gender and personality moderate the expression of aggression.

  1. A bully who hits a child and steals her toys, a terrorist who kills civilians to gain political exposure, and a hired assassin are all good examples of instrumental aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 26 1 , 57—65.
  2. When Sarah yells at her boyfriend, this is probably emotional aggression—it is impulsive and carried out in the heat of the moment. North Korea develops a nuclear weapon that it claims it will use to defend itself from potential attack by other countries but that the United States sees as a threat to world peace.
  3. Terrorists use tactics such as killing civilians to create publicity for their causes and to lead the governments of the countries that are attacked to overrespond to the threats McCauley, 2004.
  4. Perhaps terrorists are individuals with some kind of deep psychological disturbance. Marty finds her boyfriend kissing another girl and beats him with her purse.

Males are more likely than females to engage in aggression that produces pain or physical injury. Instrumental aggression may be more likely for men; hostile aggression for women.

  1. This can be to a threat made by another or even an insult. Anders Behring Breivik killed over 90 people in a misguided effort to promote his conservative beliefs about immigration.
  2. Delegitimization removes the target outgroup from the perceived "world" of humanity and lets aggressive people feel less inhibited about their violence. The effects of bullying on the personal well-being and educational progress of secondary aged students.
  3. When we use these techniques we may be able to better get away with it—we can be aggressive without appearing to others to be aggressing.

Women are more likely to use indirect aggression than men. Three personality traits related to aggression are irritability, rumination, and emotional susceptibility.

Delegitimizing outgroups promotes and justifies aggression. Delegitimization removes the target outgroup from the perceived "world" of humanity and lets aggressive people feel less inhibited about their violence. The Biology of Aggression Our evolutionary history may have led to the development of aggressive behavior patterns.

Aggression increases the likelihood that an individual will survive and successfully reproduce. Evolutionary theory predicts differences between the sexes in level of aggressiveness. Unlike instinct theory, evolutionary theory focuses on genetic survival cf.

Hard to use this theory to explain differences in aggression across cultures or within a culture over time. A number of biological factors influence aggressive behavior. Twin studies suggest that aggressiveness is heritable, although there are limitations to the studies conducted thus far.

Difference Between Hostile and Instrumental Aggression

Low levels of seratonin and high levels of testosterone have been linked to aggression. Aggression as a Reaction to Negative Affect The frustration-aggression hypothesis asserts that aggression is always the product of frustration. The cognitive-neoassociationist model explains our initial reaction to provocation. Networks, initially weak, become stronger as they are accessed. Initial "fight" or "flight" tendencies. An aversive event activates two networks at the same time.