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Influence on photography on the art in 19th and 20th century

Queen Victoria with Abdul Karim 1887 And dog!. These individuals made a huge contribution to fine art - not least because of the impact of photography on plein-air Impressionism - as well as to the history of photography.

Photography Has Changed -- Again

In addition, their inventions have led to the emergence of new branches of science which have given us new types of art including animation and video. See below for a selected list of some of the best known nineteenth century photographers and photographic firms, whose names are household words to collectors and dealers. Portrait of General Custer 1865. Portrait of the photographer and camera artist William Fox Talbot in 1864. A very unflattering portrait of the great French photographer Eugene Atget - chronicler of late 19th century Paris architecture.

List of the Top 80 Most Famous 19th-Century Photographers Here is a short list of the greatest photographers of the nineteenth century. Antoine Samuel Adam-Salomon 1811-81 Born in France, Adam-Salomon began life as a sculptor and carried his artistic talents - some say excessively - into his photography. A great believer in draping, side-lighting, and retouching, he collaborated with Carjat, Nadar, and others, in the seven volumes of the Galerie des Contemporains published in France in the 1850s.

Andrews in 1821, is inseparably linked with that of David Octavius Hill.

Photography and painting influence each other

During his short life, Adamson made, in conjunction with Hill, over 1500 calotypes of Scottish notables, workers, and genre scenes, assuming responsibility for the photographic technique. Adamson's technical skill was a perfect foil for Hill's artistry, and calotypes produced by the two men remain unequalled. Giuseppe Alinari 1836-90 Leopoldo Alinari died 1865 The firm of Alinari Brothers was founded in Florence in 1834 and quickly established itself among Italy's leading photographers.

Alinari made many thousands of large 12x16" albumen prints of European churches, historic buildings, and art treasures. The firm also produced a number of cartes-de-visite. Alinari prints sometimes bear the name Bardi, the printsellers' financier. James Anderson Isaac Atkinson 1813-77 James Anderson was born in Cumberland and spent most of his working life in Italy, first as a sculptor but by 1849 as a influence on photography on the art in 19th and 20th century photographer.

Anderson produced many hundreds of commercial photographs of Rome and art objects in Italian museums. He died in Rome in 1877. The family firm survived until the 1960s. He trained in his father's studio and was responsible for making, in 1890, copy prints of the work of Hill and Adamson and introducing them to the USA and Europe.

Thomas Annan 1829-87 A leading Scottish portrait and landscape photographer, Annan worked for many years in Glasgow, producing photographically illustrated books and a record of the Glasgow slums for the Glasgow City Improvement Trust. A limited edition of the Glasgow slum photographs was issued in 1878. Ottomar Anschutz 1846-1907 Like Muybridge, Anschutz experimented with instantaneous photography, producing excellent photographs of birds and animals at the Breslau Zoo. In 1886 he used Muybridge's system of 24 linked cameras to photograph German military manoeuvres and troops marching.

For the purpose of improving military training methods, Anschutz developed his tachyscope in 1887, which was a type of zoetrope with a cylinder mounted on a horizontal axis, using 24 images which, when rotated, gave an impression of movement.

Edward Anthony 1818-88 Anthony undertook, in 1841, the first photographic survey to be commissioned by the American Government, a survey of the North-East frontier with Canada. A year later, in 1842, he opened, in partnership with Jonas Edwards, a portrait studio in Washington, where in 1843 he photographed the members of Congress. Anthony founded, with his brother, H. Anthony, a photographic supply house, which produced and sold, in 1859, among other things stereoscopic views of New York.

Eugene Atget 1856-1927 A dedicated man, who died in poverty after spending nearly thirty years photographing the changing face of Paris, Atget was sadly neglected during his lifetime. Since 1930, however, when a selection of his photographs was published, the importance of his unique form of street photography has become increasingly regarded as a record of Parisian architecture in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Victorian architecture of the late 19th century. Apart from photographing landscapes and Alpine views, Baldus produced thousands of calotypes and wet plate photographs of Paris and its monuments, statues, and art objects. Like many others who made large prints, Baldus was adversely affected by the growing popularity of the cheap carte-de-visite and retired from photography.

Barnard 1819-1902 George Barnard, who used the daguerreotype process, was one of the team of 15 photographers employed by Mathew Brady to record the American Civil War, and in 1866 accompanied General Sherman on his march through Georgia.

In 1865 he published an album of documentary photography as a record of the campaign under the title Photographic views of Sherman's campaign.

Nineteenth-Century Photography

An ability to make the best of his sitters, and especially society women, who flocked to his studio, brought Barnett international fame. William Barraud 1810-90 Best remembered for his two volumes of Men and Women of the Day, published in 1888-89, Barraud took cabinet portraits of many famous Victorian statesmen, artists, and members of the aristocracy. Bayard did not make his process public, however, until 1840, thus forfeiting recognition as one of the earliest inventors of photography.

Bayard never became a professional photographer, preferring to keep his amateur status and using, at one time or another, almost all the known photographic processes. He was for 15 years, from 1866-1881, the Honorary Secretary of the Societe Francaise de Photographie. Richard Beard 1802-88 Although it is probable that Beard, who started his working life as a coal merchant in London, never personally took a photograph, he deserves a place here as one of the first, and possibly the greatest, entrepreneurs of photography.

He was responsible for the commercial realization of many photographic advances, including the enlarger, the shortening of exposure times, and the hand colouring of daguerreotypes. In 1841 Beard opened England's first public photographic studio in London. Beato 1832-1909 Best known as a war photographer who took gruesome photographs of the Opium War of 1860, Beato travelled extensively in the Near and Middle East before going to the Crimea with Robertson. In 1860 he went to China and photographed the Opium War.

In 1885 he covered the campaign in the Sudan, which led to the unsuccessful attempt to relieve General Gordon at Khartoum. Francis Bedford 1816-94 A noted topographical photographer, Bedford produced consistently good photographs of English cathedrals, castles, monuments, and landscape scenes, often as cartes-de-visite or stereoscopic prints.

In 1862 he recorded the tour of the Prince of Wales to the Middle East. Louis Auguste Bisson 1814-76 Auguste Rosalie Bisson 1826-1900 After opening, in 1841, one of the first daguerreotype studios in Paris under the name of Bisson Freres, the brothers visited Switzerland in 1860 as part of the entourage of the Empress Eugenie and there produced some of the earliest and most splendid Alpine photographs in the history of photography.

Bisson Freres are equally famous for their photographs of French and Italian churches and cathedrals, and their early portraits. Samuel Bourne 1834-1912 He photographed scenes in India, Kashmir, and the Himalayas during the 1860s and 1870s, overcoming innumerable mishaps and difficulties in order to do so.

Bourne later opened photographic studios in Bombay, Calcutta, and Simla. Mathew Brady 1823-96 Mathew Brady, one of the best known American photographers of the 19th century, became a professional in 1844 and was soon much sought after for his fine portraits, although of over 30,000 photographs produced by his firm in 1861 less than 100 are attributed to Brady himself. When the American Civil War broke out, Brady gathered together a team of photographers and recorded the conflict for posterity.

Unlike Fenton and Robertson in the Crimea, Brady and his team did not hesitate to show the horrors of war. Six thousand of his team's negatives were purchased by the War Department in 1875, and they form a comprehensive record of the America of those years. In partnership with Montecchi and later with Blandford, Caldesi produced many early photographs of art treasures in English collections; among his best known are the Photographs of the Gems of the Art Treasures Exhibition, held in Manchester in 1857, and his Photographic Historical Portrait Gallery, published by Colnaghi in 1864.

In the 1860s Caldesi and his partners also produced carte-de-visite portraits. As might be expected he was greatly influenced by his mother's style, producing portraits of actors and celebrities. Lewis Carroll once said of him that he was the only professional photographer who dared to produce a portrait which was exactly like the original. Cameron opened a studio in London but later gave up photography in order to become an actor.

Julia Margaret Cameron 1815-79 Julia Margaret Cameron was born in India and was the mother of six children; she was introduced to photography by her daughter in 1863 and threw herself into this new hobby with characteristic enthusiasm.

Mrs Cameron was, without doubt, one of the most fascinating figures in the whole history of photography. During the latter half of her life she produced, using soft focus and close up, some of the greatest portrait studies of all time, studies that can only be faulted for her habit of sentimentalizing her sitters and her lack of care and skill in developing and processing.

Despite these faults, it is generally acknowledged that her best portraits are unequalled and today they are eagerly sought after by collectors.

In 1875 Mrs Cameron illustrated, with a series of oddly posed influence on photography on the art in 19th and 20th century, Tennyson's Idylls of the King, a glance at which confirms the superiority of her portraits over her attempts at posing groups of people to illustrate a story. From its invention in the 1830s, photography has been dogged by issues of aesthetics and by its relationship to other types of fine art, notably painting. Even today, art critics continue to debate the question: Etienne Carjat 1828-1906 Carjat started his career in caricature arta genre that he followed for ten years.

It was once said of his photographic technique: Antoine Claudet 1797-1867 Born in France, he lived for most of his life in England. In 1841 he vastly improved Daguerre's process by reducing the time of exposure and later made a number of other contributions to photography. Among these were the use of painted backgrounds and the dark room light. He was appointed photographer to Queen Victoria in 1853.

As well as daguerreotype portraits, Claudet produced many stereoscopic photographs.

He produced a great number of calotype photographs of Spain's topography and architecture as well as studies of art works in Spanish museums. In 1861 Clifford visited England and took formal portraits of Queen Victoria. He died in Madrid in 1863. Robert Cornelius 1809-93 An American pioneer of photography, Cornelius specialized in silver plating during the early 1830s, which brought him into contact with the daguerreotype.

This resulted in his creation of a landmark self-portrait, one of the first ever photographic portraits of a person. During the early 1840s, he went on to operate two of the earliest photographic studios in America. Joseph Cundall 1818-1895 An art historian turned photographer, Cundall contributed landscape and architectural photographs to Delamotte's The Sunbeam.

Later, in partnership with Downes and subsequently Fleming, he produced carte-de-visite portraits and a series of photographs of the architectural details of Wells Cathedral. For biographical details of contemporary exponents of architectural photography, see: Bernd and Hilla Becher b. Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre 1787-1851 Daguerre, who gave his name to the daguerreotype, is without doubt the best known of the photographic inventors.

Starting his working life as a scene painter in Paris theatres and as an artist, Daguerre became interested in photography and in 1829 went into partnership with Niepce. Ten years later and six years after Niepce's death he wrote an account of his daguerreotype process which ran into over thirty editions in two years.

Daguerre was showered with honours, including the Pour le Merite from Prussia and a life pension by the French Government. George Davison 1856-1930 A gifted amateur photographer, Davison was, like Emerson, an exponent of the 'Naturalistic School' of photography.

The Nineteenth Century: The Invention of Photography

He was the managing director of Kodak Ltd. Davison died in France in 1930. Philip Henry Delamotte 1820-1889 A successful calotype photographer who worked in London, Delamotte spent two and a half years photographing the rebuilding of the Crystal Palace at Sydenham, producing in mid-1854 what was probably England's first 'press' photograph, a view of the opening of the palace by Queen Victoria.

Delamotte published a number of photographic books and journals as well as editing, in 1859, The Sunbeam, an early photographic journal. Andre Disderi 1819-1889 Disderi, Court photographer to Napoleon the Third, was the man most responsible for the introduction of the carte-de-visite and thus the popularization of cheap photography.

  • He is credited with taking the world's first press photographs;
  • In short, smart phones change photography.

During the 1850s and 1860s, Disderi, who had studios in Paris, London and Madrid, took carte-de-visite portraits of many members of the royal families and high society of Europe.