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Relief availability and distribution on disaster management

To identify the appropriate transportation to assist in the region, three models relief availability and distribution on disaster management reviewed and proposed: A typical transportation problem, a genetic algorithm based on a spanning tree, and a linear optimisation using Excel Solver.

Reviewing the literature revealed that both man-made and natural disasters have caused over ninety thousand fatalities and affected millions just over the past three decades.

A further review shows that most disaster deaths are the result of poor infrastructure, especially in populated areas. This presents a challenge to relief organisations in their efforts to provide on-time relief to victims in pre- and post-disaster periods. Although each proposed transportation problem has particular complexities, each of them could assist the region to decrease the relief operation response time and cost. This paper provides the reader with a greater understanding of the challenges faced by the humanitarian supply chain in the SADC region.

This paper proposes a conceptual model based on an actual empirical case. Dit skep 'n uitdaging vir rampverligtingorganisasies in hul poging om betyds verligting aan slagoffers te bring. Alhoewel die voorgestelde vervoerprobleme spesifieke kompleksiteite bevat, kon elkeen gebruik word om die streek by te staan om verligtingsaksies se reaksietyd en koste te verminder. They believe that this rise from a near-zero baseline in 2005 to around ten journal special editions published between 2008 and 2011 is due to the rise in disaster cases in recent decades.

Throughout history, both natural and man-made disasters have caused loss of life and environmental damage. The Centre of Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters CRED website [3] has reported that earthquakes, floods, landslides, and extreme weather conditions made 2010 the deadliest year for disasters in the last two decades [3]. Thomas [5] defines disaster relief chains as the processes and systems involved in mobilising people, resources, skills, and knowledge to help vulnerable people affected by natural disasters and complex emergencies.

  • Forced Migration Review, 22 22 , pp;
  • The transportation problem matrix is written as follows;
  • Growth of aid and the decline of humanitarianism.

With 90 000 registered victims of disasters since SADC's creation, Balcik, Beamon and Smilowitz [6] believe that providing relief rapidly and cost-effectively to the affected areas minimises human suffering and death.

Therefore, some humanitarian organisations - such as the Fritz Institute - have begun to demonstrate the need for models and tools to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of humanitarian supply chains [7].

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Some SADC countries are more advanced in their humanitarian supply chain planning than others. A survey by Thomas and Mizushima [8], at a major aid organisation that included about 300 logisticians, revealed that the majority of logisticians typically get their education and training on the job by co-workers. The inexperienced and unskilled logisticians in the field potentially hinder the provision of effective logistics support.

Other hindrances include infrastructure hospitals, roads, communications, railways, airways, buildings, etc. The aim of this paper is to review the existing transportation models and discuss the most effective system to assist SADC decision-makers in their quest for humanitarian logistic and supply chain optimisation. The objectives of this study are the following: Evaluate the region's humanitarian logistics and supply chain preparedness.

Identify key regional infrastructural and transportation challenges for disaster activities and relief organisations in SADC. Investigate available transportation models that would be suitable for the SADC region, with common parameters such as road conditions, level of preparedness, supply chains, logistical arrangements, and so forth.

Make conclusions and recommendations on the appropriate methods to be used by SADC decision-makers to ensure that the region is safe. SADC relief availability and distribution on disaster management of 15 countries: Each of those countries has had firsthand experience of both natural and man-made disasters.

The reviewed literature included areas that have been, and still are, at great risk of disaster activities, with additional emphasis being placed on the current best preventive and preparedness practices. CRED [3], in Table 2. In the SADC region, natural disasters relief availability and distribution on disaster management occurred in the form of drought, famine, earthquakes, epidemics, extreme temperatures, floods, storms, wildfires, etc.

According to the statistics listed in Table 2. A more recent example is the Ebola epidemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2014, when 40 lives were lost in the Equateur Province. Combining both natural and man-made disasters, the Southern African region has endured a total of 1 189 disaster cases from 1980 to 2013, with South Africa having the greatest number of them. Disasters are unpredictable; disaster relief demands during an event are also often unpredictable [12]; [13]; [14].

According to Hills [17], the phrase 'disaster management' implies a degree of control that rarely exists in disasters [15]. This view supports Altay and Green [18], who state that standard management methods used in industry may not directly apply to disaster situations. Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in 1750, the increase in infrastructure and transportation systems, and the development of faster and more accurate ways to maximise productivity and transform raw materials to finished-goods products, have triggered the boom of western civilisation; but they have also contributed to the increase in man-made disasters such as war, crimes, industrial accidents, transport accidents road, rail, and airterrorism, and political disasters.

According to Benson and Clay [9], poorer countries are most affected by disasters; they argue further that the poorer areas of the population are often the most severely affected [9]. Similarly, Samii [10] estimates that 90 per cent of those affected by natural disasters are in countries with medium human development, while two-thirds of those killed are from countries with low human development [11]. Southern Africa, with over 70 per cent of its population living below the poverty datum line according to Southern African Development Community SADC statisticsrequires a collective approach.

According to the World Bank's 2013 annual report, "Infrastructure has the potential to help the region be successful" [19]. Figure 2 shows the trend in disaster behaviour in each country for the growing cost of infrastructural damage and the number of fatalities. For instance, South Africa and Mauritius are the leading SADC countries in infrastructure; although the cost of damage is higher, the trend indicates a lower number of relief availability and distribution on disaster management in those two countries.

Countries such as Malawi or the DRC, where infrastructure is almost non-existent, have a relatively higher number of fatalities. According to Long and Wood [16], the number of victims is higher due to inadequate infrastructure and lack of transport connectivity between, and within, particular countries. Any future infrastructure development should take past experience into account in order to build more robust transportation and communication systems, and infrastructure that will resist natural and man-made disasters.

As indicated by Jacob, Edelblum and Arnold [22], "the robustness of infrastructure systems depends on their design, state of maintenance, and the man-made, environmental and natural stresses to which they are exposed.

  • The wicked problem of humanitarian logistics and disaster relief aid;
  • Of the SADC real-life cases studied in this paper, the linear programming model targeted a cost-effective route from origins to supplies, while the spanning tree-based genetic algorithm solved the shortest delivery route by minimising both time and cost;
  • Combining both natural and man-made disasters, the Southern African region has endured a total of 1 189 disaster cases from 1980 to 2013, with South Africa having the greatest number of them;
  • The reviewed literature included areas that have been, and still are, at great risk of disaster activities, with additional emphasis being placed on the current best preventive and preparedness practices;
  • The cost of transportation of goods by road is determined by the quantity, the distance to be covered, and the road quality from origin to destination;
  • Southern Africa, with over 70 per cent of its population living below the poverty datum line according to Southern African Development Community SADC statistics , requires a collective approach.

Besides man-made stresses, weather, climate, and extreme natural events such as floods, earthquakes, wind, or ice storms regularly test the vulnerability of these systems". These advancements have improved disaster mitigation, response, and recovery. The quick and efficient response to the 2010 earthquake in Japan serves as a testament to the positive contribution that a system such as 'just-in-time' could make in the aftermath of a disaster.

In this "increasingly becoming money rich and time poor" [25] world, developing an effective transportation system reduces congestion, pollution, accidents, financial deficits, pockets of poor access, potholed roads, etc.

It also increases accessibility between nations within the region.

  1. Forced Migration Review, 22 22 , pp. The objectives of this study are the following.
  2. According to Hills [17], the phrase 'disaster management' implies a degree of control that rarely exists in disasters [15]. According to the statistics listed in Table 2.
  3. For a complete graph of p nodes, it may have pp - 2 trees of different node label permutations.
  4. To develop such a model, the following information is critical. The statistical data from CRED revealed that countries with more advanced infrastructure have had fewer fatalities in disaster events.

The roads in many countries are currently poorly maintained and in disrepair, with the skills and resources necessary to upgrade transport generally lacking. Table 2 shows the performance of transport corridors in Africa. Table 2 and Figure 3 indicate that, when the roads are in a good condition, trade density and the implicit velocity increases, while the freight tariff decreases southern corridor.

  • Each of those countries has had firsthand experience of both natural and man-made disasters;
  • There is often a need to take these optimisation objectives of cost and time into account [35];
  • Considering all this, the linear programming problem LP is represented as follows;
  • Due to the obviously larger number of variables required in this model, this minimisation problem is too cumbersome to solve manually or with a calculator.

When the roads are not well-maintained, the trade density and the implicit velocity both decrease, while the freight tariff is the highest of the four corridors central corridor.

The region's future transportation systems should respond to the rising disaster concerns. For instance, the distance of the trip impacts on the trade density and the freight tariff, while the road condition affects the scheduling of the reception and condition of the freight received. Although road transportation is subject to high risk and low reliability [26], and is the second largest overhead cost to humanitarian organisations after personnel [28], [29], Balcik et.

In order to achieve this, the research began with an extensive review of the literature on humanitarian supply chains, and by collecting data from disaster management databases. This method helped to identify the areas of highest risk within the southern African region see Table 2. Statistical data on the history, type, and magnitude of different disasters were available from the CRED. The literature review alone identified enormous challenges, among them the lack of collaboration, the lack of standards and indicators, inadequate training of disaster personnel and volunteers, low recognition of logistics, and inadequate infrastructure and transportation systems [31].

A survey was distributed to relief and church organisations that are actively involved in disaster response in the SADC region. Their responses were added to the data collected from multiple other sources to increase the depth of the study and thus its external validity [27], and to increase its construct validity [37]. The survey feedback was not included in the findings of this paper, as the main function of the survey was to establish a common conceptual understanding of the relief organisations on the ground and to validate the data collected.

The transportation problems for disaster situations are complicated.

The optimisation target is usually not unique. There is often a need to take these optimisation objectives of cost and time into account [35]. According to Vignaux and Michalewicz [32], transportation problems seek to determine a minimum-cost transportation plan for a single commodity from a number of sources to a number of destinations. According to Render, Stair, and Hanna [39], this technique has very little to do with computer programming.

The word 'programming' in science refers to modelling or solving a problem mathematically. To develop such a model, the following information is critical: A list of the origins. A list of destinations and each destination's demand per period.

The unit cost of shipping items from each origin to each destination.

Food Assistance for Disaster Relief

Considering all this, the linear programming problem LP is represented as follows: A load product is transported from each of m sources to n destinations. For the transportation time and cost to meet the minimum value simultaneously, the LP minimisation zp needs to be formulated as follows: Now, setting Xijto be the variable denoting the amount transported from supply point i to demand point j, let aibe the availability at source points i and bjthe demand at demand point j.

The transportation problem TP input data could be expressed as intervals instead of point values. According to Jimenez and Verdegay [38], intervals are needed when uncertainty exists in a data problem, which is often the case in a disaster relief availability and distribution on disaster management situation.

And decision-makers are more comfortable expressing it as intervals. In this exercise, Jimenez and Verdegay [38] have considered the TP in which intervals appear only in the constraint set - i. The formula could be interpreted as follows: Bryant and Benjamin further describe a genetic algorithm as a "new optimization technique which can be applied to various problems, including those that are NP-hard non-deterministic polynomial-time hard " [33].

From the coding method finding, Van Wassenhove and Pedraza Martinez [28] designed an adaptive weight multiple-objective genetic algorithm [35]. According to Gen and Li [36], during the solving of a transportation problem, the spanning tree-based GA saved more computational time than the matrix-based GA, and it had a higher solution quality.

A matrix is the most natural representation of a solution for a transportation problem. The transportation problem matrix is written as follows: To code a transportation tree, first record a non-leaf node that directly connects a minimum leaf node, and then remove the minimum leaf node from the transportation tree. The process needs to be done until only two nodes are left in the tree. Leaf nodes are marked out with dotted line circles in the chart below.

The developed model is associated with the total transportation cost and the total transportation time by setting a limit relief availability and distribution on disaster management time while optimising the cost.

Five constraints have been generated from the study. These constraint are as follows: Transportation time cannot exceed the decided maximum reaction time.

  1. Figure 8 shows that the original cost method is unfavourable because the transportation time and cost increase simultaneously.
  2. A further review shows that most disaster deaths are the result of poor infrastructure, especially in populated areas. For the transportation time and cost to meet the minimum value simultaneously, the LP minimisation zp needs to be formulated as follows.
  3. The word 'programming' in science refers to modelling or solving a problem mathematically.

Transportation cost must be minimised.