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The issues of wetland conservation and policy

Therefore, coastal wetlands include saltwater marshes, estuaries, mangroves, lagoons and coral reefs. This section focuses on more general issues around EBA in coastal wetlands.

The issues of wetland conservation and policy

Where restoration is the only option, it needs to consider the hydrology of the local environment. Coastal wetlands such as mangroves rely on a balance of salt and freshwater.

  • Mapping the locations of different habitats and human activities can help in understanding these relationships;
  • They are cradles of biological diversity, providing water and primary productivity upon which countless species of plants and animals depend for survival;
  • The NWCP had a set of ambitious goals, including;
  • For example, seagrasses can help trap sediment and thus maintain clear water that coral reefs need and reduce the chances of sediment smothering coral reefs.

Therefore inland restoration of freshwater sources, including through approaches such as integrated water resource management IWRM and ridge-to-reef, can be key to the success of coastal management and restoration.

Another example of an on-site approach is the creation of plant nurseries to provide material for habitat restoration. There are many others and they will vary depending on the habitat type ref. Coastal wetland conservation and restoration as an EBA measure Wetlands have been widely recognised as providing a range of valuable ecosystem services ref.

This reduces the erosive power of waves and helps to reduce coastal flood risk by diminishing the height of storm surges. Additionally, in contrast to hard defences, wetlands are capable of keeping pace with sea level rise through increased accumulation of sediments raising the elevation of the wetland ref. Therefore, provided that the rate of sea level rise does not outpace accretion rates, sediment supply is sufficient and that wetlands are not hemmed in by inland the issues of wetland conservation and policy, they are capable of maintaining their wave attenuation functions as sea level rises without further investments.

Wetland restoration is relevant to another important climate change impact on coastal areas. Sea level rise leads to salt water intrusion and a likely rise in the freshwater-saltwater interface in ground water sources in coastal areas.

Coastal wetland conservation and restoration

Groundwater is the main source of fresh water for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes for coastal communities especially in SIDS. Restoring inland wetlands can promote the flow of more fresh water from inland aquifers to recharge coastal aquifers and re-balance the freshwater saltwater interface.

Such measures need to be accompanied by effective ground water monitoring: Additional benefits Coastal wetlands also provide a variety of other ecosystem services, including breeding and nursery grounds for a variety of birds, fish, shellfish and mammals, as well as water filtration functions and ecotourism opportunities.

Wetland conservation

The conservation and restoration of wetlands can support the resilience of these ecosystem services and the livelihoods they provide. A wide range of activities have been undertaken to conserve and restore wetlands; although most have not previously focused on climate change adaptation, its emphasis is now increasing.

Key issues that can affect success Restoration techniques and their degree of success are highly dependent on wetland type and local specific characteristics ref.

However, all types of wetland conservation and restoration require areas of land that are set aside for the relevant ecosystem and this can conflict with planning and implementation of various types of coastal development ref. Coastal habitats are inter-connected and therefore it can be important to consider how different coastal wetlands interact with one another and with surrounding marine and terrestrial habitats.

For example, seagrasses can help trap sediment and thus maintain clear water that coral reefs need and reduce the chances of sediment smothering coral reefs.

China’s Wetlands: Conservation Plans and Policy Impacts

Wetlands are also inter-connected with different human activities and sectors for example fisheries and coastal development. Mapping the locations of different habitats and human activities can help in understanding these relationships.

Another key element is the social aspect of conservation and restoration. Participatory principles are crucial for the implementation of successful management. It is also essential that any on-the-ground coastal wetland conservation and restoration activities are integrated with, and supported by, policy measures such as relevant laws and regulations, e.

Through publications, expert databases and case studies, it promotes the successful restoration and conservation of wetlands worldwide by developing networks and by encouraging information exchange and cooperation. A practical and easy to use manual for wetland restoration and conservation of diverse animal species.

  • The East Kolkata wetlands with their garbage farms and fishponds have provided the city with three facilities, i;
  • Endangered species like the Indian mud turtle have also been found in the wetlands.

A Practical Guide to Restoration and Management. US Environmental Protection Agency. Written for the public containing 1 background on wetlands and restoration, 2 information on project planning, implementation, and monitoring, and 3 lists of resources, contacts, and funding sources.

Waikato Regional Council, New Zealand. Presents a simple flowchart to find out more about each step in the restoration process and allows the users to create their own Wetland Plan. Describes what it is that needs to be managed and aims to help develop an understanding of how to evaluate the need for management intervention and the form that intervention might take.

South Australia Environment Protection Agency. Presents an estuarine monitoring framework that is suitable for use by a wide range of community groups, including a range of activities that these groups may wish to explore.

Community Estuarine Monitoring Manual.